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Hemnälg irregular verbs, colloquialisms, and dialects

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PostPosted: Sun Aug 30, 2009 2:19 pm    Post subject: Hemnälg irregular verbs, colloquialisms, and dialects Reply with quote

I was going to put this with the Hemnälg thread, but then I thought it might be a bit much. So, here goes!

The names listed below represent the capital city of the kingdom in which the dialect is spoken, in order from oldest to youngest by establishment. Some phonological similarities are due to proximity of one area to another, and some due to sound shifts over time. The colloquial verbs may hold alternate meanings or additional semantic nuances not listed; the most basic use for each is shown for the gloss.

Irregular verbs:
Tenses other than past are NOT affixed to the infinitive/dictionary form of the verb; they go right on the present or past form, e.g. “he was going” would be /teläng/ (go-PAST(3m)-CONT). The (p.) stands for person: first is for I/we, second for you/they, and third for he/she/it – neuter subjects take the masculine form of the verb. As a note, all dialects share these irregular verbs, but there are some additional ones unique to a couple dialects.

Sorry about all the lines, but I'm tired of my tabs getting messed up when I copy and paste from Word. Evil or Very Mad

______To be________to go_________to do__________to have_______to see________to want________to can
p. 1___sor___________ta___________por___________rha__________se____________ric/ryc________skä/sky
past___sol__________tal___________pål___________rhal__________selë/selå_______ rila/rälå_______skå
3_____säl/söl_______tel/tyl_________pël/pöl________rhel/rhyl ______sil/sul_________ril/roll________skå

______To dwell______to use________to stop________to expect

Colloquial verbs:
They follow similar patterns, but they can be completely different words from their more proper counterparts. There also are some completely different colloquial verbs depending on where you are, but I haven't put them down.

______To be__to call__to die__to do__to go__to open_to take__to know__to use__to start__to linger__to look
Inf.___sun____nött____ttet____dy____må____harh___fy_____mitt______gram ___guc____rëng_____bilv
p.1___som____nöj____ttem___dy_____må____hå____fy_____mir______grå_____gom ____reg_____big/by
p.3___sum____nåm___ttac____dy/di__mö____hö____fy/fi___man______gar_____gum ____rag_____bin

These are all in the Labä and Usjytt dialect, as they are considered to be the most proper and classy-sounding. The sort of Hemnälg spoken in these two cities is used as a standard in schools, as Labä is the oldest city besides the First, which is nearly mythological its origins go back so far, and Usjytt is the first stable city established below the equator and retained its northern accent. As a note, the glottal stop, as marked by /’/, is a phoneme, but nearly everywhere else it’s been lost. All vowel-initial words take the glottal stop, and it marks a difference between diphthongs and single vowels beside each other (e.g. /ai/ vs. /a’i/).

I’ll mark differences in the irregular verbs using a copy of the chart above, and list any changes in verb tense affixes or noun cases. I’ll do colloquial verbs another time…

/a ä i e ee o ö u y/
[a~ɑ æ i ɛ e~ɪ ɔ~o œ~ø ʌ~u y]
/b c d f g ĝ h j k l m n ng p r rr s t v sj ch/
[b k d v g ʁ h j kʲ l m n ŋ p ɹ r(r) s~ʂ t~ʨ f ɕ~x x~χ]

This dialect has completely lost /å/, and /tg/.
/k/ is palatalized before /a ä e/ but not /ee o ö u y/. /s/ is [ʂ] when following /a ä e u/, and /r/ may also be a flap on unstressed syllables or before alveolar consonants.
Rounded vowels become long word finally: ooo, ööö, uuu, yyy
/a/ and /e/ on unstressed syllables can sound like [ə]

Grammatically, the Burstänby dialect has some differences worth noting. The tense affixes change as follows:
CONT (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – stoa/äĝ (changes /å//oa/, /ng/[ĝ]/[a/æ/ɪ]_#
PAST (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – al/el
TENT (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – hoa/höö (/å//oa/, /ö/[œ:]/_#
FUT (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – jaa/jee (elongated to differentiate from future perfect, ja/je)
INF (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – ack/eck (to match other a/e affix combinations), /ck/=[c]
IMP (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – a/e
INT (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – adoo/edoo (changes /å//oo/)
NEG (final vowel/final consonant) – ch/oa (changes /å//oa/)

“to be” is now /sorg/, “to do” is /por/, “to have” is /ĝid/ and “to expect” is /seen/.
______To be________to go_________to do_________to have_______to see_________to want_______to can
p. 1___sor__________ta____________por__________ĝa____________se___________ric/ryc________skä/sky
past___sol__________tal___________pol__________ĝaal___________seli/selo ______rila/ralo_______sku

______To dwell______to use_______to stop________to expect

Is he singing?!

I don’t expect to see them until next year.
Eengoa se särik if plöt sälod.
[e:ŋoa sɛ sæɹik plœʨ sælod]
/expect-PRES(1)-NEG se(INF) they until next year/

He will have been working for a long time.
Kargäĝje long paric.
[kʲaɹjæʁjɛ loŋ paɹik]
/work-CONT-(past-in-future) long time-for/

/a ä (å) i e o ö u y/
[a~ɑ æ (o) i ɛ~ɪ ɔ~o œ u ɨ~ʉ]
/b c d f g h j k l ll m n ng p r rr s t tt v sj ch/
[b k d v g h j kʲ l ll m n ŋ p ɹ~ɾ r(r) s ʨ t f ç~x x~χ]

/å/ is pretty much obsolete, unless you’re being very polite. The actual letter is retained in formal writing to differentiate between homophones. /g/ word-finally often sounds like /ɰ/, and /ch/ can be a hardly pronounced /k/. /sj/ may also be [ɕ~ʃ].
/a/ and /e/ on unstressed syllables or word-finally can sound like [ə]

Generally after consonant clusters like /sk/ or /st/ or /h(C)/, /å/ becomes /o/. In most other cases it becomes /u/.

/m/ does not occur word-finally, and is replaced with /n/. However, in instances in the Labä or Usjytt dialects where /m/ would occur and a suffix would be attached to that word, it becomes /m/ again in the Nöra dialect:
e.g. “to do battle” /kattym/ is /kattyn/ in Nöra, but when a tense affix is attached it goes back to being /m/ -
“is doing battle” /kattymstå/ -> /kattymsto/. Note the pronunciation of the word becomes [k_ja}mstO] or [k_jat}msto], whereas in Labä or Usjytt it would be [k_jadymstO].

Tense differences:
CONT(rounded/unrounded final vowel) – sto/ääng (/å/ becomes /o/, /ä/ becomes elongated)
PAST (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – al/äl
Present perfect/pluperfect (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – aal/ääl
TENT (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – hu/höö (/å/ becomes /u/)
FUT (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – ar/er (/j/ became /r/ sometimes, and here is metathesis)
INF (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – ach/ech (/c/ becomes spiranticized)
IMP (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – a/e – when a verb ends on the vowel /a/, it may change to /ä/ and double for the imperative: /ää/. Ending on /i/ it may double to /ii/. Ending on /y/ will take /a/ or /e/ depending on its pronunciation as [ɨ] or [ʉ].
INT (rounded/unrounded final vowel) – adu/edu (/å/ becomes /u/)
NEG (final vowel/final consonant) – ch/u (/å/ becomes /u/)
Note that all initial vowels in the affixes except for those doubled and the imperative will be dropped when applied to a vowel-final verb.

______To be________to go_________to do_________to have_______to see________to want________to can
p. 1___sorj__________ta____________porj_________rra___________se___________ric___________ska
p.3___seg/sog_______ti/tu___________per/pud _____rra/rro_________se/se________ruch__________ska

______To dwell______to use________to stop_______to expect

Note that /r/ becomes /rj/ word-finally – this is not a rule in general, just for the irregular verb conjugations.
Nöra also has a couple changes in the pronoun “I”:

NOM (m/f) – forj/lus
ACC (m/f) – fon/lun
ABL (m/f) – nich/bäch
GEN (m/f) – fos/lut
INST/ASSOC (m/f) – fol/lyy (in the other dialects, this case is accounted for through the accusative)

Nouns have a couple extra forms:
LOC1 (inside) n/m/f – at/et/ot
LOC2 (under) n/m/f – asj/esj/osj
LOC3 (near) n/m/f – ana/eni/unu <- in all the other dialects, this is covered with the suffix for “by/with”
INST/ASSOC (with) n/m/f – aaf/eef/yyf <- in all the other dialects, this is covered with the suffix for “by/with”

Examples, from Labä to Nöra dialect

I want you to come with me.
Labä – ryc (lus) gyl kärit ëb lä lum
[ryk lus gʉl ʃɛric ɨb læ lum]
/want-PRES(1f) (I-NOM(f)) that come you by/with I-ACC/

Nöra – ric (lus) gyl kärit ei lyy.
[rik lus gɨl kʲæɾiʨ ɛi lʉ:]
/want-PRES(1) (I-NOM(f)) that come you I-ASSOC(f)/

It’s in the jar.
Labä – säg (ëë) pylgåc
[sɛg ɨ: pylgɔk]
/be-PRES(3m) (inside) jar-in(f)/

Nöra – seg puljot
[sɛɰ puljoʨ] or [sɛg puljoʨ]
/be-PRES(3m) jar-LOC1(f)/
(“jar” is /puljo/)

I can see a lizard under that rock!
Labä – sky se sjingä usjat små ëstg!
[sky sɛ xiŋæ uxæc smɔ ɨsx]
/can-PRES(1f) see lizard under that rock/

Nöra – ska se sjenga eschesj!
[sk(ʲ)a sɪ xɛŋə ɪsxɪx]
/can-PRES(1) se lizard that rock-LOC3(m)/

Leave it near the door.
Labä – gåfraen plëtëc
[gɔvraɛn plɨcɨk]
/leave-IMP door-by/

Nöra – gufrae pletteni
[guvraɪ plɪtɛni]
/leave-IMP door-LOC3(m)/

/a ä å e i ö u y/
[a æ ɒ~ɔ~o ɛ i œ~ø u ɨ~ʉ]
/b c d f g ĝ h j k l ll m n ng p r rr s t v sj/
[b k d v g ʁ h j k l ll m n ŋ p ɹ~ɾ r s t f x]

In this dialect, /o/ and /tt/ have been lost, and it picked up the trill found in the Burstänby dialect. It also makes no differentiation between palatal, velar, and uvular fricatives: using /sj/ it covers all of them.
/k/ is palatalized before /a ä e/, and /t/ may be tapped on unstressed syllables. The combination /sjv/ is said [ʃ].

______To be________to go________to do_________to have________to see_________to want_______to can
p. 1___sår__________ta___________pår___________ĝät___________se____________ris___________ska

______To dwell_____to use________to stop________to expect

Regular verb tenses remain unchanged in this dialect, but it has some extra noun cases like the Nöra dialect.

NOM (m/f) – far/lus
ACC (m/f) – farm/lum
ABL (m/f) – nisjva/basjva
GEN (m/f) – fars/lud
INST/ASSOC (m/f) – fara/lura

LOC1(near) n/m/f – an/en/un
LOC2 (under) n/m/f – ap/ep/öp
LOC3 (over) n/m/f – ajn/ijn/ån
INST/ASSOC (with) n/m/f – alå/ilå/ålå

Go with me over the next dune.
Taen basjva plöt nubrukån
[taɛn baʃə plœt nubɹukon]
/go-IMP I-ASSOC(f) next dune-LOC3/

I live near the wall under a shade-tree with my friend.
Par åsjlen meckep lud dilnelå
[paɹ oxlən mɛkɛp lud dilnəlɔ]
/dwell-PRES(1) wall-LOC1(f) shade-tree-LOC2(m) I-GEN(f) friend-ASSOC(f/m)/

Compare that with Labä dialect:
Parg åtglec usjat meck lutt dilnec
[parj ɔxlɛk uxæc mɛc lud dilnɛk]
/dwell-PRES(1) wall-by under shade-tree I-GEN(f) friend-by/with/

…and with Burstänby dialect:
Par ochlec usjat meck lud dilnec
[paɾ oxlɛk uxæt mɛk lud dilnɛk]
(same gloss as Labä)

…and with Nöra dialect:
Parj uchlena meckesj lut dinaaf/dineef/dinyyf
[paɾj uxlɛna mɛkɪç luʨ dina:v/dinɛ:v/dinʉ:v]
/dwell-PRES(1) wall-LOC3(f) shade-tree-LOC2(m) I-GEN(f) friend-ASSOC(n/m/f)/ <- the word for friend is /dina/, and while some speakers drop the stress on the second syllable to allow for the affix, thus making a diphthong, it is possible to simply drop the /a/.

I think that's just about it for now. *whew* I'll gladly answer any questions, and comments are wonderful. (^_^)
I have some small knowledge of:
English, Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Spanish, French
I would like to learn:
(more) Chinese, Swedish, Italian, German, Indonesian, Tagalog, Gaelic
Main conlangs:
ddamachel, tadvaradcel, ra cel, lashel, hemnalg, nomah
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