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Kexyana or Kexỹana, my first conlang

 
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kyonides



Joined: 28 Aug 2008
Posts: 301

PostPosted: Sun Nov 02, 2008 10:45 am    Post subject: Kexyana or Kexỹana, my first conlang Reply with quote

Its Development

I gotta admit this isn't the first time I introduce it in any forum.

It's a young conlang, I may say, because I started developing it on June 2008. At first I thought it could serve for something like a cypher or something like that. Later I learned it'd be consider a Romlang due to the great influence of Spanish (and by default Latin, too). Since I was convinced that I didn't like the a posteriori conlangs, I've been trying to make it a a priori one but it takes too much time and it still looks like a romlang in some (or many?) aspects.

Kexyana or Kexỹana

Vowel inventory

<a e ẽ i o u y ỹ> /a e E i o u i Y L/

I know that ỹ doesn't seem to be an actual vowel...

Consonant inventory

/p b t d k g m n f v T s S x j h l L 4 r w M\ ts tC Y/
<p b t d k g m n f v th s sh h j h l y r ŕ w g z x y>

Stops /p b t d k g/ <p b t d k g>
Fricatives /f v s z S h/ <f v s z sh h>
Approximants /j l 4 r w/ <j l r ŕ w>
Nasals /m n ń/ <m n ñ>
Affricates <z>
??? /ks kS tC/ <x>

The name Kexyana or Kexỹana should be pronounced like this
/kekS'iana/, /kekS'Yana/, /keks'Lana/, /ketC'iana/, /ketC'Yana/

Those pronunciations exist due to different dialects in my conworld, where 3 large territories exist named The Empire (temporal name), Alirdyse and Layse. Smaller regions that might be included there as well are Shelnovlone (Geckoshire, lit. Gecko warehouse) and Navlone (it's Navrise but everyone else calls it like that).

About Genders

There are no articles. The gender is marked by the final vowel or the word.

m. sing. / plural endings

-e / -on || -eo / -oe || -oe(o) / -oen || -es / -usos

f. sing. / plural endings

-i / -un || -ii / -isi || -uu / -usi

n. sing. / plural endings

-a / -am || -as / -usam || -ya / -yna || -o(s) / -ox
-yo / -yno || -oos / -aos || -(o)m / --- || -(e)n / --- || -l / -r

Pronouns

All the personal and possessive pronouns have male, female and neuter / epicene variants.

There are 4 grammatical persons (here in nominative case).

Person / m., f., n./e.

I - Noe, Nai, Nea
You - Koe, Kai, Kea, Heas (formal)
He/She/It - Loe, Lai, Lea, Disal
4th - Galnas

We - Noen, Naun, Neam
You - Koen, Kaun, Keam, Heusam (formal)
They - Loen, Laun, Leam, Disar

About Galnas

Galnas may mean "they", "it" or "people" depending on its actual context. It's also used to form the substitute for the passive voice because there's no such a thing in Kexyana.

Possessive Pronouns

My - nu
Your - ku
His / Her / Its - lu or lyu (depending on where the other person's located)
Formal: his / her - hye

Galnas permits no possessive or reflexive pronoun (most of the time).

Our - no
Your - ko
Their - lo or lyo
Formal: Their - hyo

Pronouns that are placed right after a noun.

My - Nume, Numi, Numa
Your - Kume, Kumi, Kuma
His / Her / Its - Lume, Lumi, Luma
Formal: His / Her - Hyume, Hyumi, Hyuma

Our - Nome, Nomi, Noma
Your - Kome, Komi, Koma
Their - Lome, Lomi, Loma
Formal: Their - Hyome, Hyomi, Hyoma

Demonstrative pronouns

This - Nese, Nesi, Nesa
That (1) - Kese, Kesi, Kesa
That (2) - Lese, Lesi, Lesa
That (3) - Dese, Desi, Desa

These - Neson, Nesun, Nesam
Those (1) - Keson, Kesun, Kesam
Those (2) - Leson, Lesun, Lesam
Those (3) - Deson, Desun, Desam

Instructions on how to use the demonstrative pronouns:

Nesa is used if the object is close to the speaker.
Kesa is used if it's closer to the receiver.
Lesa is used if it's close to another person.
Desa is used if it's not close to anyone there or it's an idea or concept you don't remember or it's about something that may never happen.

Grammatical Cases

There are 5 cases that use an suffix as their marker.

Nominative, Dative, Commitative, Essive, Temporal case
Niusesva, Nozaesva, Kuresva, Dithesva, Anadithesva

no marker / gender marker, -s(V), -n(V), -th(V), -thy(V)

Some Other Facts

Whenever you use expressions like "are you with me?" you'll need to use the commitative case or an adverb.

With me - (m) Noene, (f) Naini, (n/e) Neana, (any) nugairos
With you - (m) Koene, (f) Kaini, (n/e) Keana, (formal) Heana, (any) kugairos
With him / her - (m) Loene, (f) Laini, (n/e) Leana, (any) lugairos

Appositions

If a apposition has a positive or unknown value, it'd used as a preposition. If negative, it'd just be an postposition.

with this thing - kur nesa Dissa
without this thing - nesa Dissa nins

To be in Kexyana

Thei = Some permanent quality, inherent to the object's description
Mai = Some temporary quality, which is not part of the object's description, only added qualities because it or he has it at the moment
Roi = Someone's standing point, location or someone or something's (living) in a period of time.
Vreu = Some physical quality like being sick or healthy or nervous or even paranoid.
Jaei = To be conscious

The difference between Thei and Mai would is the following:

I'm sad - Noe then shelme (I'm usually sad)
I'm sad - Noe man shelme (I'm now sad)

I was sad - Noe theni shelme (I was sad then - in the past but that changed dramatically or it isn't going to happen anymore - )
I was sad - Noe mani shelme (I was sad then - for a while - )

I am healthy - Noe vren idesse.

I may emphasize that thei (to be for emotions) isn't used very often in that context and mai is the best way to express your feelings in Kexyana. So to be (thei) just means here that you exist or you're a person, a doctor, a philologist or something else.

I'm (living) in the past - Noe ron nos / sor Anaense.
This tree wasn't here before - Nese Ilore ron nin eno anadi.
I'm at home - Noe ron nos Lirna.
I'm before (in front of) the pyramid. - Noe ron ver Lao(n)gaurees.
I'm working on my PC - Noe ron nirsois ver Kurshesde.

The last sentence uses Roi because you could also say "I'm at my workplace now" - Noe ron nos Nirsoyse nume di.
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Last edited by kyonides on Thu May 13, 2010 11:39 pm; edited 9 times in total
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Tolkien_Freak



Joined: 26 Jul 2007
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PostPosted: Sun Nov 02, 2008 2:33 pm    Post subject: Re: Kexyana, my first conlang Reply with quote

kyonides wrote:
To be in Kexyana

Thei = Some permanent quality, inherent to the object's description
Mai = Some temporary quality, which is not part of the object's description, only added qualities because it or he has it at the moment
Roi = Someone's standing point, location or someone or something's (living) in a period of time.
...


I like this. I'd like to see it in more conlangs. It seems almost counter-intuitive to have all three the same (like in English). The only natlang I've seen that does this though is Classical Japanese.

Like it, looks good! The Spanish influence is hard to spot in the example sentences alone.
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Hemicomputer



Joined: 04 Feb 2008
Posts: 610
Location: Calgary, Alberta

PostPosted: Sun Nov 02, 2008 2:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm confused by your vowel inventory, what is the X-SAMPA and what is the romanization? Also, are ALL of /p b t d k g/ represented by just <p>?

Other than that, I rather like what you have so far, your pronouns seem quite detailed and I like the nuances with different forms of "to be."
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kyonides



Joined: 28 Aug 2008
Posts: 301

PostPosted: Sun Nov 02, 2008 4:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well, you can see my post named A husband's letter to his wife (is this grammatically correct? I don't care if it's politically incorrect he he he) where I published the Kexyana version. Actually I had to update it before I could ever post it here due to some major changes in Kexyana lexicon and grammar.

Oops, I pasted it in the wrong way and most of the inventory is missing he he he. My bad, I'll fix it. Btw, it's romanized, you can see my Kexyana conscript in the respective subforum.

Edit (Shilzen in Kexyana):

I forgot to disable the HTML code in my previous post he he he.


More on Kexyana - Vocabulary

Kesnivo - one of the (best, worst, technicians, etc.)
Kesnivleno - one of many...
Kestivo - some of the (best, worst, technicians, etc.)
Kestivleno - some of many...
Keskeno - some (name a thing) or something of/from...
Kesleno - many of the (best, worst, technicians, etc.)
Kesmeno - too many of the (best, worst, technicians, etc.)

Noe then kesnivo ereinon Ansern(e)kon.
I'm one of the best archers.

Kesleno ereinon Kurnzerson evreli ves gaumarnei Relge Aglenos Laonthes.
Many of the best knights fought to defend the throne of King Aglenos Laonthes.
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kyonides



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PostPosted: Sun Mar 08, 2009 9:03 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here's stuff regarding another reform in Kexyana grammar (Glimeyna Kexyana).

Before:

Past Perfect -- Indicative Mood
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- heni theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- henyo theon / nayn

Future Perfect -- Indicative Mood
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- hense theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- henso theon / nayn

Past Perfect -- Subjunctive Mood
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- haeni theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- haenyo theon / nayn

Future Perfect -- Subjunctive Mood (but wasn't even used by nobles and scholars)
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- haense theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- haenso theon / nayn

After:

Past Perfect -- Indicative Mood
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- zernoni theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- zernonyo theon / nayn

Future Perfect -- Indicative Mood
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- vernonse theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- vernonso theon / nayn

Past Perfect -- Subjunctive Mood
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- zernaeni theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- zernaenyo theon / nayn

Future Perfect -- Subjunctive Mood (introduced by Prince Aglenos Sornisthes of Layse)
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- vernaunshe theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- vernaunsho theon / nayn


But...

Conditional Perfect -- Indicative Mood
1 PERS Sing. Noe / Nai -- heune theon / nayn
1 PERS Pl. Noen / Naun -- heuno theon / nayn

Conditional tenses haven't changed at all...

Well, according to the official records of the Kingdom of Layse, Prince Aglenos Sornisthes ("Augustus" Above-all-being) declared that the language needed to clarify certain things concerning the perfect tenses. Thus he "suggested" that the auxiliary verb for to have in English should be "deprecated" in favor of newer verbs (actually made-up verbs) that included an especial aspect related to their respective tense.

The verb zernoi comes from the postposition zer(nos) (for behind), while the verb vernoi evolved from the preposition ver(nos) (for before, in front of). Some scholars suggest that those verbs should be replaced by shorter forms like zeroi and veroi but the royal officers, scribes and anyone else trying to please their Majesty don't even try to conjugate the verbs the way they proposed for very good reasons. Even so there could be some commoners that may conjugate the verbs in an unofficial way...

Enter the -Y suffix...

Another thing that changed by the time of this reform was the conjugation of almost all verbs that ended in -ii. The suffix was replaced by another one, the -y suffix.

At the beginning they were conjugated like this

Infinitive - daii (to live-PRES-IND)
Noe dain (I live-PRES-IND)
Noe daiune (I live-Conditional (simple), I would live)
Noe daiene (I live-PRES-SUBJ, I would live)

But later...

Infinitive - day (to live during the earlier days of the reform)
Noe dan (I live-PRES-IND)
Noe daune (I live-Conditional (simple), I would live)
Noe dane (I live-PRES-SUBJ, I would live)

You might have noticed that first the second i in the first example disappeared after conjugating the verb. Later the Prince's draft suggested it shouldn't even exist now that both i were replaced by the y suffix. This lasted about a year or two before Prince Aglenos Sornisthes changed his mind and later declared that the y suffix had the same value as two i so it shouldn't be omitted while conjugating a verb since they should write down two consecutive y there instead of just a single one. Thus the final verb conjugation rule now says that it should be conjugated like this...

Infinitive - day (to live after the reform)
Noe dayn (I live-PRES-IND)
Noe dayune (I live-Conditional (simple), I would live)
Noe daone (I live-PRES-SUBJ, I would live)

As a summary, Prince Aglenos Sornisthes were forced to "fix" the same problem he created by reforming the Kexyana language.

Nowadays the only way you can find a word ended in a double i suffix is as a substantive with female genre like Mardii (flower).

By the way, now the verb vreu (to be) is used whenever you want to talk about how you feel at any specific moment, i.e.
I'm healthy - Noe vren idesse.
I was sick - Noe vreni odnosine.
I'm nervous - Noe vren alibrede.
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kyonides



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PostPosted: Wed Mar 25, 2009 11:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The main purpose of this post is to show you they way Kexyana offers to get rid of the et conjunction and its derivatives if it suits your needs.

My friend and I watched the soccer / football match on TV last night.

Kexyana:

Noe ses Rinees nume shenyo Spega Gaedsebel* nos / dens Adfeyshde anarye.
I and friend 1st PERS-demonstrative-pronoun to see-1st PERS-PL-IND game foot-ball in / "inside or between" another-light-see-thing last-night-adv.

Noe Rineune shenyo Spegaedsebel* nos / dens Adfeyshde anarye.
I friend-COMM 1st PERS-demonstrative-pronoun to see-1st PERS-Pl-IND game-foot-ball in / "inside or between" another-light-see-thing last-night-adv.

* You can use any of the available options: Spega Gaedsebel or Spegaedsebel or Gaedspega
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kyonides



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PostPosted: Thu May 13, 2010 11:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Now Kexyana is also written Kexỹana and the vowel inventory now also include two new characters, ẽ and ỹ (/E L/). Yes, I know that ỹ doesn't seem to be an actual vowel...
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Tolkien_Freak



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PostPosted: Fri May 14, 2010 1:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

kyonides wrote:
Yes, I know that ỹ doesn't seem to be an actual vowel...


So is it a consonant? Is it always syllabic?
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kyonides



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PostPosted: Fri Oct 28, 2016 4:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well, y has been a very flexible character allowing multiple pronunciations depending on its current syllable.

Introducing genitive case or nunasva Fiada in Kexyana, it is used only when we're talking about people except for first names or lastnames.

Koe zernoki sheon nin lye Perne Draseŕewon doensha hemok dayn nos nivo Kisos.
[You-nom. sing., have-2 pers. sing., seen, not, dark, side, criminal-gen. pl., till, end up, living, in, a, cell-nom. sing.]
You haven't seen criminals' dark side till you end up living in a cell.

Cases where you don't use genitive case

Lomyero kes Inolessa Kexyana
Vocabulary-of-conlang-Kexyana

Lomyero Kexyana
Vocabulary-Kexyana

The use of the commitative case has been extended, the kur preposition (meaning "with") has been abolished already.

All stuff above means that there are six cases in Kexyana nowadays. (It was supposed to be a conlang with no other case than nominative, but stuff happens I guess.)
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