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Basic sentences for testing grammar

 
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Tolkien_Freak



Joined: 26 Jul 2007
Posts: 1231
Location: in front of my computer. always.

PostPosted: Mon Mar 08, 2010 2:25 am    Post subject: Basic sentences for testing grammar Reply with quote

Based on something off the Conlang listserv, namely this. I've modified it to cut down on the vocabulary range even further, mostly since I seem to ignore animal words when coming up with vocab (so Emitare so far has no animal words, IDK if it even has 'animal' yet). I've tried to make it more standardized so the relevant changes don't get lost among several irrelevant changes.

It might come out a bit IE-centric, if your lang does something interesting that wouldn't be shown add a sentence for it. (If your lang generally uses a gender-neutral word for 'man', go with the 'male' one - it draws a contrast between 'the man' and 'the woman' several times.)

TO BE

The man is. (I.e. he exists)
The man is tall.
The man is a person.
The man is at the house.

TENSES

I had gone. (past, completed before another past action)
I had been going. (past, not completed before another past action)
I had been about to go. (past, not begun before another past action)
I have gone. (past, completed before present)
I went. (plain, completed past)
I was going. (plain, not completed past)
I was about to go. (past, not begun before reference point)
I am going. (present, not completed)
I am about to go. (present, not yet begun)
I will go. (plain future)
I will be going. (future, not completed before reference point)
I will be about to go. (future, not begun before reference point)
I will have gone. (future, completed before another future action)
I would have gone if you had not been here. (past contrary-to-fact, might be a mood)
I would go if you were not here. (present contrary-to-fact, might be a mood)
[if negatives change things, you can repeat the above with 'I am not going' and so forth]

VOICES

I see him.
I am seen by him. (object > subject, subject > oblique phrase)
(if someone can think of a good middle voice example with basic vocab, tell me)
I make him see me. (causation)
I make him happy. (not necessarily a voice, but IDK where else it would go)
I let him see me. (permission, though this generally isn't a whole voice)
I help him see me. (helping)
I see myself. (reflexive)
Me and you see each other.

MOODS

I see him.
I certainly see him.
People see. (in general)
I guess he sees me. (I don't know for sure.)
I probably see him.
If I see him, he will go. (conditional)
May he see you!
Let us see him.
See me!
I want to see him.
I want him to see me.
Do you see him?
As far as I know, he saw me.
I must see him. (necessity)
I'm supposed to see him. (obligation)
It must be there! (expectation)
I can see him. (ability)
I may see him. (permission)

BASIC CASES (this could use some work)

I see.
I see him.
I am here.
I go.
This is my house. (alienable)
This is my eye. (unalienable)
I make it for him.

NUMBERS

I have a house.
I have one house.
I have a pair of houses.
I have 10 houses. (not ten, but whatever one-zero means: in Emitare that's 8 houses)
I have about 10 houses.
I have every house.
I have some houses. (I don't know how many.)
I have some houses. (less than half)
I have half of the houses.
I have most of the houses. (more than half)
I have no houses.
I have part of a house.
Houses in general are tall.

PRONOUNS
(repeat any if gender or such is relevant, or you can add some sentences for demonstrating radically different case forms (say, I/me))

I see the man.
You (sg) see the man.
He/she/it sees the man.
We see the man. (You do not.)
We see the man. (You also do.)
You (pl) see the man.
They see the man.

I see myself.
I myself see the man.

He saw the man enter his house. ("his" meaning the subject's)
He saw the man enter his house. ("his" meaning the man's)

(I wish I could think of how to test fourth person)

DEMONSTRATIVES

The man goes.
A man goes.
The man is here. (near me)
The man is there. (near you)
The man is yonder. (near neither of us - normally the English is 'there')
This man is here.
That man is here.
Yonder man is here.

QUESTION PRONOUNS

Where are you?
Where are you going?
What is this?
What are you doing?
Who are you?
How many men do you see?
How are you doing that?
Why are you doing that?
When will you be there?

MODIFYING

The man is tall.
The tall man is going.
The man who I saw is going.
The man goes slowly.
The man is very tall.
The man goes very slowly.

ADPOSITIONS OR LOCATIVE CASES

The man is here.
The man is at the house.
The man is going out of the house.
The man is outside of the house.
The man is walking around the house. (outside the house)
The man is walking around the house. (inside the house)
The man is going into the house.
The man is in the house.
The man is near the house.
The man is walking past the house.
The man is on top of the house.
The man is going to the house.
The man is going toward the house.
The food is for the man. (for the use or benefit of)
The man walked to the house for food. (I.e. in order to get food)
The man is walking with the woman.
The man jumps over the water.
The man walks through the water.
The man walks under the tree.
The man stands against the tree.
The man is between the woman and the house.
The man walks in front of the woman. (no intent to be sexist here Razz)
The woman walks behind the man.
The man eats after the woman. (sequence in time)
The woman eats before the man. (sequence in time)
The man walks up the hill.
The man walks down the hill.
The man walks away from the house.
The man walks toward the house.
The woman is among the men.
The water moves inward. (toward a point possibly from different directions)
The water moves outward. (away from a point possibly in different directions)

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES of some kind or other

I see the man going there.
I see the man that goes there.
I know that the man goes there.
He sees me while he is walking.
I will go until I see you.
I go because I saw you.
I like going there.

COMPARISONS

I am as tall as you.
I am taller than you.
I am the tallest.
I am too tall.
I am less tall than you. (if you use a separate verb put it here anyway, that's relevant)
I am the least tall.
I am not tall enough.


Feel free to post suggestions! The Emitare will follow in a separate post.
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Tolkien_Freak



Joined: 26 Jul 2007
Posts: 1231
Location: in front of my computer. always.

PostPosted: Mon Mar 08, 2010 3:06 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I've cut out some stuff that I have yet to do.
For some reason all of the verbs here come out as yar- (do), yat- (go) and yal- (see) Razz

TO BE

E olu.
The man is. (I.e. he exists)
Ture olu.
The man is tall.
Li olu.
The man is a person.
Ryame olu.
The man is at the house.

TENSES

Yatunu .
I had gone. (past, completed before another past action)
Yatunuma .
I had been going. (past, not completed before another past action)
Yatunumi .
I had been about to go. (past, not begun before another past action)
Yathu .
I have gone. (past, completed before present)
Yatu .
I went. (plain, completed past)
Yatuna .
I was going. (plain, not completed past)
Yatuni .
I was about to go. (past, not begun before reference point)
Yatha .
I am going. (present, not completed)
Yathi .
I am about to go. (present, not yet begun)
Yatji .
I will go. (plain future)
Yatjira .
I will be going. (future, not completed before reference point)
Yatjiri .
I will be about to go. (future, not begun before reference point)
Yatjiru .
I will have gone. (future, completed before another future action)
Yatune mereluruleve ma.
I would have gone if you had not been here. (past contrary-to-fact, might be a mood)
Yate merelureve ma.
I would go if you were not here. (present contrary-to-fact, might be a mood)
[if negatives change things, you can repeat the above with 'I am not going' and so forth]

VOICES

Yo la.
I see him.
Yo la .
I am seen by him. (object > subject, subject > oblique phrase)
(if someone can think of a good middle voice example with basic vocab, tell me)
Ya yale le .
I make him see me. (causation)
Ya yae la.
I make him happy. (not necessarily a voice, but IDK where else it would go)
Yo sja.
I see myself. (reflexive)

MOODS

Yo la.
I see him.
Yalje la.
I certainly see him.
Yo leso.
People see. (in general)
Yove la, ya le.
If I see him, he will go. (conditional)
Yalje lj la.
Let us see him.
Yalje !
See me!
Ev yale le .
I want to see him.
Ev yale la.
I want him to see me.
Yalo la?
Do you see him?
Yaluza la.
I must see him. (necessity)
Yaleta la.
I'm supposed to see him. (obligation)
Mereluva ke!
It must be there! (expectation)
Yaluze la.
I can see him. (ability)
Yaluze la.
I may see him. (permission)

BASIC CASES (this could use some work)

Yo .
I see.
Yo la.
I see him.
Meri la.
The man is here. (changed because is the same in act and stat)
Ya le.
The man goes.
lhe re kera.
This is my house. (alienable)
lhe ie kera.
This is my eye. (unalienable)
Ina ka leai.
I make it for him.

NUMBERS

Eru rya.
I have a house.
Eru ryasu.
I have one house.
Eru ryalj.
I have every house.
Eru ryalhu.
I have some houses. (I don't know how many.)
Eru ryalha.
I have some houses. (less than half)
Eru ryalhe.
I have most of the houses. (more than half)
Eru ryalju.
I have no houses.
Eru ryalha. (form is same as LPAUC-STAT)
I have part of a house.

PRONOUNS
Pronouns in Emitare are like Japanese pronouns - they're not a separate class of words in any sense other than that they might refer to the speaker or the listener rather than an uninvolved person or object. 'It' is generally 'ke', the word for 'thing', and 'him/her' is generally 'le' (person). There's a lot of work I have left to do on them.
(I'm using '' for 1p and 'me' for 2p.)

DEMONSTRATIVES

Ya le.
The man goes.
Ya le.
A man goes.
Meri la.
The man is here. (near me)
Meri la.
The man is there. (near you)
Meri la. (same in all three ^_^)
The man is yonder. (near neither of us - normally the English is 'there')
Meri lera.
This man is here.
Meri lera.
That man is here.
Meri lera.
Yonder man is here.

QUESTION PRONOUNS

Meke ma?
Where are you?
Mekamai ya me?
Where are you going?
Kete kera?
What is this?
Zeka e me?
What are you doing?
Leke ma?
Who are you?
Zekaze ya me zera?
How are you doing that?
Vekai ya me zera?
Why are you doing that?
Nekama meri ma?
When will you be there?

MODIFYING

Ture la.
The man is tall.
Ya turale le.
The tall man is going.
Ya yalune le.
The man who I saw is going.

MORE TO COME L4T0R
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Hemicomputer



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Posts: 610
Location: Calgary, Alberta

PostPosted: Mon Mar 08, 2010 3:25 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I have been wanting a list like this for ages! A thousand thanks!

I'll try to get some of these finished soon. I've thrown out all but three of my conlangs now, and none of those are too far developed.
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achemel



Joined: 29 Mar 2009
Posts: 555
Location: up for debate

PostPosted: Mon Mar 22, 2010 5:39 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I've done it in a dialect of Hemnlg, as standard would've been a bit boring. I probably will do ra cel next, but I'll only post it if I finish the whole list. (^_^)


(Vrhelklad dialect)
TO BE sury

The man is.
Stit sar.
The man is tall.
Stit sar flje.
The man is a person.
Stit sar susje.
The man is at the house.
Stit sar lkac.

TENSES

I had gone.
Talal.
I had been going.
Sul talng.
I had been about to go.
Sul tajee.
I have gone.
Talal.
I went.
Tal.
I was going.
Talng.
I was about to go.
Sul tngry.
I am going.
Tng.
I am about to go.
Tary.
Sar tary.
Tajee.
I will go. (plain future)
Tajee.
I will be going.
Tngjee.
I will be about to go.
Sarjee tary.
I will have gone.
Taje.
I would have gone if you had not been here.
Tajeh p salal nusjv.
I would go if you were not here.
Tajeeh p ser nusjv.

VOICES

I see him.
Se ritec.
I am seen by him.
Surs ritil.
Sr sin lum.
I make him see me. (causation)
Hlng se lum.
I make him happy.
Lus nst mera ritec.
I let him see me.
Sjerne se lum.
I help him see me. (helping)
Rasjem se lum.
I see myself. (reflexive)
Se lusi.
Me and you see each other.
Lus yĝ dy se isjne.

MOODS

I see him.
Se ritec.
I certainly see him.
Se ritec aj.
Kallac se ritec.
People see. (in general)
Skrran se.
I guess he sees me. (I don't know for sure.)
Pryduk gyl se lum.
I probably see him.
Skgec se ritec.
If I see him, he will go. (conditional)
P se(h) ritec, tijee.
May he see you!
Sjerneen sejee dyc!
Gyl sejee dyc!
Let us see him.
Sjerneen biric ritnej.
Sjerneen ulsec ritil.
See me!
Seen lum!
I want to see him.
Ris se ritec.
I want him to see me.
Ris gyl se lum.
Do you see him?
Se(d) ritec?
As far as I know, he saw me.
If mid lus, sin lum.
I must see him. (necessity)
Samne se ritec.
I'm supposed to see him. (obligation)
Sejeen (lum) ritec.
It must be there! (expectation)
Sarjee (aj) rrisjv!
I can see him. (ability)
Ska se ritec.
I may see him. (permission)
Sjerne lum se ritec.
Dy se ritec.

BASIC CASES (this could use some work)

I see.
Se.
I see him.
Se ritec.
I am here.
Sr nusjv.
I go.
Ta.
This is my house. (alienable)
Lyka sr lud lka.
(I have a house. (alienable)
Ĝt lka.)
This is my eye. (unalienable)
Lyka sar lud es.
(I have an eye. (unalienable)
Sar es lum.)
I make it for him.
Nst lus ritec.

NUMBERS

I have a house.
Sr lka lum.
Lum sr lka.
I have one house.
Sr al lka lum.
I have a pair of houses.
Ser nak lkal lum.
I have 10 houses. (not ten, but whatever one-zero means: in Emitare that's 8 houses)
Ser br lkal lum. (11)
I have about 10 houses.
Ser kl gnd lkal lum.
I have every house.
Ser sr lkal lum.
Sr s lka lum.
I have some houses. (I don't know how many.)
Ser nul lkal lum.
I have some houses. (less than half)
Ser nak lkal lum.
I have half of the houses.
Ser fjet sr lkal lum.
I have most of the houses. (more than half)
Ser amhul lkal lum.
I have no houses.
Sr h al lka lum.
I have part of a house.
Ĝt hul lkac.
Houses in general are tall.
Lkal lc ser fulje.

PRONOUNS
(repeat any if gender or such is relevant, or you can add some sentences for demonstrating radically different case forms (say, I/me))

I see the man.
Se stitec.
You (sg) see the man.
Se stitec.
He/she/it sees the man.
Se stitec.
We see the man. (You do not.)
Se stitec.
We see the man. (You also do.)
Se stitec.
You (pl) see the man.
Se stitec.
They see the man.
Se stitec.


Something with a bit more gender marking might be to have /ĝist/:
I have a pen.
Ĝt spgyc.
You(sg) have a pen.
Ĝet spgyc.
He/she/it has a pen.
Ĝad/Ĝd spgyc.
We have a pen.
Ĝt (kar) spgyc.
You(pl) have a pen.
Ĝet spgyc.
They have a pen.
Ĝet spgyc.

I see myself.
Se lusi.
I myself see the man.
Lus se stitec.

He saw the man enter his house. ("his" meaning the subject's)
Rit sin stitec p krit ritis lkac.
He saw the man enter his house. ("his" meaning the man's)
Rit sin stitec p krit vli lkac.


DEMONSTRATIVES

The man goes.
Stit ti.
A man goes.
Stit ti.
The man is here. (near me)
Stit sar nusjv.
The man is there. (near you)
Stit sar rrisjv.
The man is yonder. (near neither of us - normally the English is 'there')
Stit sar dy.
This man is here.
Lyka stit sar nusjv.
That man is here.
Sm stit sar nusjv.
Yonder man is here.
Neng stit sar nusjv.

QUESTION PRONOUNS

Where are you?
Grym ser?
Where are you going?
Clsj tag?
What is this?
Rb sar lyka?
What are you doing?
Rb perng?
Who are you?
Ser nik?
How many men do you see?
Dej bur stitr se?
How are you doing that?
Dej hulal perng?
Why are you doing that?
Rrsk perng?
When will you be there?
Hvist ser rrisjv?

MODIFYING

The man is tall.
Stit sar flje.
The tall man is going.
Flje stit tihng.
The man who I saw is going.
S stit tihng.
The man goes slowly.
Stit ldigil ti.
The man is very tall.
Stit sar t flje.
The man goes very slowly.
Stit t ldigil ti.

ADPOSITIONS OR LOCATIVE CASES

The man is here.
Stit sar nusjv.
The man is at the house.
Stit sar lkac.
The man is going out of the house.
Stit tihng lkag.
The man is outside of the house.
Stit sar s lkag.
The man is walking around the house. (outside the house)
Stit darryst s lkaun.
The man is walking around the house. (inside the house)
Stit darryst demk lkac.
The man is going into the house.
Stit kritng lkac.
The man is in the house.
Stit sar lkac.
The man is near the house.
Stit sar lkaun.
The man is walking past the house.
Stit gryydarryst lkaun.
The man is on top of the house.
Stit sar lk(ac)n.
The man is going to the house.
Stit tihng lkanuj.
The man is going toward the house.
Stit tihng lkanuj.
The food is for the man. (for the use or benefit of)
Hymar sr stitec.
The man walked to the house for food. (I.e. in order to get food)
Stit darryl lkanuj s hg hymaryc.
The man is walking with the woman.
Stit darryst nbyckl.
The man jumps over the water.
Stit vrsk nar flnn.
The man walks through the water.
Stit darry flntg.
The man walks under the tree.
Stit darry lmp.
The man stands against the tree.
Stit dat stis lmyc.
The man is between the woman and the house.
Stit sar yy nbyckac yĝ lkac.
The man walks in front of the woman.
Stit darry pgnaj nbyckac.
Stit darry pgnaj nbyckaun. "The man walks a bit in front of the woman."
The woman walks behind the man.
Nbycka darry ulj stitec.
Nbycka darry ulj stiten. The woman walks close behind the man.
The man eats after the woman. (sequence in time)
Stit df tara/bilka nbycka df.
The woman eats before the man. (sequence in time)
Nbycka df j stit df.
The man walks up the hill.
Stit darry rygrick.
The man walks down the hill.
Stit darry usbrick.
The man walks away from the house.
Stit darry (neng) lkag.
The man walks toward the house.
Stit darry lkanuj.
The woman is among the men.
Nbycka sr stejb stitrec.
The water moves inward. (toward a point possibly from different directions)
Fln pire bynaj.
The water moves outward. (away from a point possibly in different directions)
Fln pire snaj.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES of some kind or other

I see the man going there.
Se stitec p ti rrisjv(naj).
I see the man that goes there.
Se stitec gyl ti rrisjv(naj).
I know that the man goes there.
Mid lus gyl stit ti rrisjv(naj).
He sees me while he is walking.
Se lum is darryst.
I will go until I see you.
Tajee if se dyc.
I go because I saw you.
Ta sfy s dyc.
I like going there.
Hmr lus tam rrisjv(naj).

COMPARISONS

I am as tall as you.
(Lus) sr i fulje i dy.
I am taller than you.
Sr fuljn nu dyc.
I am the tallest.
Sr fuljng dir.
I am too tall.
Sr rde fulje.
Sr bda fulje.
I am less tall than you.
Sr i fulje i dy.
I am the least tall.
Sr fuljng dir.
I am not tall enough.
Lud nukp klennes. My bones dont fit right.
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achemel



Joined: 29 Mar 2009
Posts: 555
Location: up for debate

PostPosted: Thu Mar 25, 2010 4:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I feel like I'm hogging this thread but somehow I've managed to do it all in ra cel as well... A dialect this time too, but only because it has a definite article, not just an indefinite one.


Wemegh cel
TO BE /iagh/

The man is. (I.e. he exists)
Jnia du-bht.
The man is tall.
(Du)-bhtaẅ i lyheca.
The man is a person.
(Du)-bhtaẅ n-dh.
The man is at the house.
Ia du-bht t-du-sobẁvc.

I used the nounal present tense affix here, which isn't exactly orthodox, but it is done sometimes. I used the verb "to be" in the comparative section at the end.

TENSES

I had gone.
Iagh chch l.
I had been going.
Iagh chmu l.
I had been about to go.
Iagh chnu.
I have gone.
Iagh chch l.
I went.
Chch l.
I was going.
Chchm l.
I was about to go.
Iagh chnu.
I am going.
Chmu l.
I am about to go.
Mn chnu.
I will go.
Chgh l.
I will be going.
Iagh chmu l.
I will be about to go.
Iagh chnu.
I will have gone.
Chliv l.
I would have gone if you had not been here.
Chbhot l avt iagh iagh gyn lbh ib.
Chbhot l ẅiagh lbh ib.
I would go if you were not here.
Chmia l avt ẅia lbh ib.

VOICES

I see him.
Vre l rc.
I am seen by him.
Vrdh l u-rc.
I make him see me.
Vres l rc li.
I make him happy.
Inmas l rc cwvirca.
I let him see me.
nvrdh rwc li.
I help him see me.
Cena l rc sa vres li.
I see myself.
Slvre l.
Vrdh ldh.
Me and you see each other.
Vre l-s-lbh tu-nan.

MOODS

I see him.
Vre l rc.
I certainly see him.
Tachẅ vre l rc.
People see.
Vre dhdh.
I guess he sees me.
Yt vrenalla rwc li.
I probably see him.
Mth vre l rc.
If I see him, he will go.
Vrecagh l rc, chgh rwc.
May he see you!
Allavre rwc lis!
Let us see him.
Atnavti log vres rc.
See me!
Vrem li!
Atvre li!
I want to see him.
Vrenu rc.
I want him to see me.
Vrdhnu u-rc.
Do you see him?
Vre lbh rc?
As far as I know, he saw me.
Yt mamu, vres rwc li.
I must see him.
Tlvresdh l rc.
Tlla l vremusagh (jw-)rc.
I'm supposed to see him.
Biaghsdh vremusagh-nagh (jw-)rc.
It must be there!
Hima iam eob!
I can see him.
Gl vrech l rc.
I may see him.
Navtdh vrech l rc.

BASIC CASES (this could use some work)

I see.
Vre l.
I see him.
Vre l rc.
I am here.
Ia l ib.
I go.
Ch l.
This is my house. (alienable)
Ia um sobẁvc-nagh.
Ia um sobẁvc a na.
This is my eye. (unalienable)
Ia um terth-nagh.
Ia um terth a na.
I make it for him.
Iathia l cẃ ve-rc.

NUMBERS

I have a house.
Thl l n-sobẁvc.
I have one house.
Thl l fs sobẁvc.
I have a pair of houses.
Thl l gŷgh sobẁvcn.
I have 10 houses.
Thl l iam sobẁvcn.
I have about 10 houses.
Thl l se iam sobẁvcn.
I have every house.
Thl l sobẁvc a abhta.
Thl l tere-sobẁvc.
I have some houses.
Thl l r sobẁvcn.
I have some houses.
Thl l wdh sobẁvcn.
I have half of the houses.
Thl l mb dhig jw-sobẁvcn.
I have most of the houses.
Thl l heo sobẁvcn.
I have no houses.
Thl l n-sobẁvc gyn.
Thl gyn l an n-sobẁvc.
I have part of a house.
Thl l n-srnv jw-n-sobẁvc.
Houses in general are tall.
Ia sobẁvcn i liji.

PRONOUNS
(repeat any if gender or such is relevant, or you can add some sentences for demonstrating radically different case forms (say, I/me))

I see the man.
Vre l du-bht.
You (sg) see the man.
Vre lbh du-bht.
He/she/it sees the man.
Vre rwc/n/cẅ du-bht.
We see the man. (You do not.)
Vre li du-bht.
We see the man. (You also do.)
Vre li du-bht.
Vre tere-li du-bht.
You (pl) see the man.
Vre bhdh du-bht.
They see the man.
Vre bd du-bht. (plural of s/he)
Vre sd du-bht. (plural of it)

I see myself.
Slvre l.
Vrdh ldh.
I myself see the man.
Vre lg du-bht.

He saw the man enter his house. ("his" meaning the subject's)
Vres rwc du-bht sa nem sobẁvc-crd.
He saw the man enter his house. ("his" meaning the man's)
Vres rwc du-bht sa nem sobẁvc-crd.

(I wish I could think of how to test fourth person)

DEMONSTRATIVES

The man goes.
Ch du-bht.
A man goes.
Ch n-bht.
The man is here. (near me)
Ia du-bht ib.
The man is there. (near you)
Ia du-bht eob.
The man is yonder. (near neither of us - normally the English is 'there')
Ia du-bht eob (a yfior).
This man is here.
Ia m-bht ib.
That man is here.
Ia bht-i ib.
Ia ic-bht ib.
Yonder man is here.
Ia bht i yfior ib.
Ia bht ib i yfior.

QUESTION PRONOUNS

Where are you?
Ia lbh hjenm?
Where are you going?
Chmu lbh t-hjenm?
What is this?
Ia um th?
What are you doing?
Bhymu lbh th?
Who are you?
Ia lbh sim?
How many men do you see?
Vre lbh j dhig jw-bhtn?
Vre lbh dch bhtn?
How are you doing that?
Bhymu lbh j?
Why are you doing that?
Bhymu lbh cui?
When will you be there?
Iagh lbh eob lnma?

MODIFYING

The man is tall.
Ia du-bht i lyheca.
The tall man is going.
Chmu du-bht i lyheca.
The man who I saw is going.
Chmu vresch du-bht i na.
Chmu du-bht sa vresch l.
The man goes slowly.
Silẅ ch du-bht.
The man is very tall.
Ny ia du-bht i lyheca.
The man goes very slowly.
Ny silẅ ch du-bht.

ADPOSITIONS OR LOCATIVE CASES

The man is here.
Ia du-bht ib.
The man is at the house.
Ia du-bht t-du-sobẁvc.
The man is going out of the house.
Chmu du-bht vẅ-sobẁvc.
The man is outside of the house.
Ia du-bht lẅas-sv-du-sobẁvc.
The man is walking around the house. (outside the house)
Ghilemu du-bht lẅasse-du-sobẁvc.
The man is walking around the house. (inside the house)
Ghilemu du-bht se du-sobẁvc.
The man is going into the house.
Chmu du-bht byt-du-sobẁvc.
The man is in the house.
Ia du-bht by-du-sobẁvc.
The man is near the house.
Ia du-bht u-du-sobẁvc i nsir.
The man is walking past the house.
Ghilemu du-bht bul du-sobẁvc.
The man is on top of the house.
Ia du-bht t-du-culj jw-du-sobẁvc.
The man is going to the house.
Chmu du-bht t-du-sobẁvc.
The man is going toward the house.
Chmu du-bht t-du-sobẁvc.
The food is for the man. (for the use or benefit of)
Ia du-gadas ve-du-bht.
The man walked to the house for food. (I.e. in order to get food)
Ghilem du-bht t-du-sobẁvc gadas-me.
The man is walking with the woman.
Ghilemu du-bht rn-du-dja.
The man jumps over the water.
Cmoga du-bht t-du-mlm.
The man walks through the water.
Ghile du-bht lẅen du-mlm.
The man walks under the tree.
Ghile du-bht h-du-hẅj.
The man stands against the tree.
Ja du-bht rind t-du-hẅj.
The man is between the woman and the house.
Ia du-bht t-du-dja-s-sobẁvc.
The man walks in front of the woman.
Ghile du-bht gtt-du-dja.
The woman walks behind the man.
Ghile du-dja bltht-du-bht.
The man eats after the woman. (sequence in time)
Ẅvẅ du-bht mu-du-dja.
The woman eats before the man. (sequence in time)
Ẅvẅ du-dja gt-du-bht.
The man walks up the hill.
Ghile du-bht t-du-sec a weif.
The man walks down the hill.
Ghile du-bht cw-du-sec.
The man walks away from the house.
Ghile du-bht (lar)-sv-du-sobẁvc.
The man walks toward the house.
Ghile du-bht t-du-sobẁvc.
The woman is among the men.
Ia du-dja ẅl du-bhtn.
The water moves inward. (toward a point possibly from different directions)
Ar du-mlm t-byth.
The water moves outward. (away from a point possibly in different directions)
Ar du-mlm t-lẅas.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES of some kind or other

I see the man going there.
Vre l du-bht m ch rwc eob.
I see the man that goes there.
Vre l du-bht sa ch eob.
I know that the man goes there.
Ma l sa ch du-bht eob.
He sees me while he is walking.
Vre rwc li sdhc ghilemu rwc.
I will go until I see you.
Chgh l eib vre l l.
I go because I saw you.
Ch l ne vresch l l.
I like going there.
Wr l -chmusagh jw-t-eob.

COMPARISONS

I am as tall as you.
Ia l u lyheca m l.
I am taller than you.
Ia l n l i welyheca.
I am the tallest.
Ia l i hlyheca.
Ia lg i hlyheca (emphasis on I)
I am too tall.
Ia l dch i lyheca.
I am less tall than you.
Ia l n l i cwlyheca.
I am the least tall.
Ia l du-eny a hlyheca.
Ia lg du-eny a hlyheca. (emphasis on I)
I am not tall enough.
Ia l r gyn i lyheca. (this actually is kind of positive.)
Ia gyn l r i lyheca. (this is more negative, and closer to the English.)
Ia l r i lyheca gyn. ("I am enough not-tall" - I'm happy with my height, please don't make me any taller)
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 25, 2010 5:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here is what I have so far in Марсин Сюфра/Marsin Syufra. This is a new-ish lang for me, so some parts of the grammar are tentative.

English
Марсин
Transliteration

The man is. (I.e. he exists)
Сомол ки.
Somol ki.
The man is tall.
Сомол лайга.
Somol laiga.
The man is a person.
Сомол түн.
Somol tn.
The man is at the house.
Сомол єзрын ки.
Somol yezrın ki.

I had gone. (past, completed before another past action)
Сурөзгег.
Surzgeg
I had been going. (past, not completed before another past action)
Сурөзгегай.
Surzgegai.
I had been about to go. (past, not begun before another past action)
Сурөзген.
Surzgen.
I have gone. (past, completed before present)
Сурөзг.
Surzg.
I went. (plain, completed past)
Сурөзг.
Surzg.
I was going. (plain, not completed past)
Сурөзгай.
Surzgai.
I was about to go. (past, not begun before reference point)
Сурөзген.
Surzgen.
I am going. (present, not completed)
Сурөзай.
Surzai.
I am about to go. (present, not yet begun)
Сурөзне.
Surzne.
I will go. (plain future)
Сурөзне.
Surzne.
I will be going. (future, not completed before reference point)
Сурөзнай.
Surznai.
I will be about to go. (future, not begun before reference point)
Сурөзнен.
Surznen.
I will have gone. (future, completed before another future action)
Сурөзнег.
Surzneg.
I would have gone if you had not been here. (past contrary-to-fact, might be a mood)
Сурезумаг ле тайкеаскиг.
Surezumag le taikeaskig.
I would go if you were not here. (present contrary-to-fact, might be a mood)
Сурезум ле тайкеаски.
Surezum le taikeaski.

I see him.
Сувошты.
Suvoştı.
I am seen by him. (object > subject, subject > oblique phrase)
Сувошт удма.
Suvoşt udma.
I am seen.
Воштмет.
Voştmet.
I make him see me. (causation)
Сутах удвоштмет.
Sutakh udvoştmet.
I make him happy. (not necessarily a voice, but IDK where else it would go)
Сутах удмыл.
Sutakh udmıl.
I let him see me. (permission, though this generally isn't a whole voice)
(undecided)
I help him see me. (helping)
(undecided)
I see myself. (reflexive)
Сувоштой.
Suvoştoi.
Me and you see each other.
Воштув ду һеч.
Voştuv du he.
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