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The Alurhsa Word for Constructed: Creativity in both scripts and languages
 
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Aalmoken
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eldin raigmore
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Joined: 03 May 2007
Posts: 1621
Location: SouthEast Michigan

PostPosted: Tue Jan 31, 2012 6:39 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

LingoDingo wrote:
All I can say assuredly is that this mood represents the concept behind would+verb in English. Perhaps I'll put in more infixes to represent the other concepts but for now the other irrealis moods will have to be expressed like in English.
I think I get it. Thanks.


LingoDingo wrote:
On another note. The unabridged dictionary is a slow-going process to make. I could post my approximations list but some of the translations might need explanation (I tried to make the definitions as clear as I could). Some others can have other relatively easily inferred translations. It also does not include all of the definitions for the suffixes, but there are a couple examples to illustrate the concept of many of them.
I'd actually like to do it fairly soon and see if you guys would like to test Aalmok and see if there's any improvements I can glean a need for, or if there's any other concepts I have for it that need to be explained.
Is that something we might be interested in?

I think a "word"-list, with short glosses of each morpheme (including roots), would be both sooner useful and eventually more useful, than an unabridged dictionary.
So, yes, that's something I think we'd all be interested in. I know that at least, I'd be interested in it.
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LingoDingo
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Joined: 25 Oct 2011
Posts: 100
Location: Eastern US

PostPosted: Tue Jan 31, 2012 11:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

This is the vocabulary I have up to now. I'll try to keep it updated


Word - Equivalent

General Vocabulary

aalfabet - alphabet
mon - to moan
aanon - to be
aď - person
aď - people
adk - building
aiť - seat/chair
ajat - hallway
akton - to advertise| so.
Amal - calm
ameson - to wait| for| so.
ut - sound
a - people
aaan - culture
bac - war
bad - abdoman
baks - country/nation
ban - pain
bason - to clean| so.
beiyon - to bring to life/give birth to| so.
beľ - goat
binal - great/very good
bizob - visibility
bizobal - visible
blak - storm
bľom - drum
bloz - the body
boď - falsehood
boison - to be born
boiam - birthday
bokon - to hit| so.
boľ - train
box - thunder
bubwav - senior
bukn - dirtiness
bun - male
buňkal - old
buntť - college
bunton - to learn| so.
buwal - large
buws - very
bwaď - adult
bwiyon - to bring| so.
byubon - to go
caidon - to help/assist| so.
cakal - benevolent/good
casal - common/normal/everyday
cegon - to walk
cetson - to rule| so.
cigaznon - to think about| so.
ciiamon - to scream
cik - ice
cikwazon - to feel about| so.
ciňeuť - hail
ciňkon - to freeze
ci - place
con - state of being
coňgon - to doom| so.
cook - snow
cum - state of mind/mood
cuskon - to stay
cut - friend
dacs - path/pathway
daiyon - should
dak - snack
dakakson - to deactivate| so.
daoon - to confuse| so.
dask - boat
dzbeenon - to edit| so.
dazdon - to swim
dzgiton - to amaze| so.
debwiyon - to acquire| so.
deen - action
deenisal - Nominative
deenobal - do-able
deenon - to do| so.
deenusal - Accusative
deenuson - to be done to
deftal - easy
degon - may
deimomon - to repeat| so.
deit - position
deitisal - Locative
delks - game
delkson - to play| so.
demeeron - to continue| so.
dep - type
depsokon - to take a shower
desk - power
dezuton - to know one's self
diňkson - to give| so.
diňksuson - to recieve| so.
dston - to spend| so.
diyuton - to rhyme
dobal - easy
dubaksal - international
dubon - to kill| so.
ďugal - bad
ďugeňal - malevolent
dukep - battle
dumokis - code-switching
dumomon - to converse
duneg - network
dupepson - to exchange| so.
dk - water
duwiňgon - to combine
dvaanon - to take| so.
dws - also
dwav - twins(unrelated)
dweks - (the) both
dwez - number
dwezobal - finite
dwezon - to count| so.
eidal - ugly
eip - another one
eips - again
emvwiicon - to enjoy| so.
eňkon - to awaken
faf - front
faix̌non - to build| so.
far - a whole
faron - to complete| so.
faton - to find/to locate| so.
fet - trumpet
fip - lip
fiyon - to jump
fkap - brick
flaakon - to lead| so.
flamed - temperature
flamon - to heat
fnimon - to seem
fsad - river
fsadon - to flow
ftekson - to fix| so.
ftenon - to bifricate
fum - air
fux - flame
fwiiyon - to face| so.
fyuux̌on - to percipitate
gaaks - length
gaamom - telephone
gaaňkson - to wish| for| so.
gaaval - distant
gaimon - to look| at| so.
gak - neck
gn - group
gnon - to group
gauzon - to sit down
gaziyon - to stand up
gazn - statement/3rd level thought
geňkon - must
geňkwam - Physics
giiv - happiness
giud - party/celebration
glan - word/1st level thought
glaz - back(body)
gobacis - armistice
gočk - value
gočkis - significance/meaning
gočkon - to signify/mean| so.
goiy - butt
gokakson - to malfunction
goň - rear
gooqon - to follow| so.
gospoľ - cruise liner
guuzon - to die
gwaapon - to sit
gyudon - to lose| so.
gyuw - land
habyuwon - to resist| so.
hfon - to breath
hahon - to laugh
haidon - to care for| so.
ham - mountain
hzn - question
hznon - to ask| so.
hedeenon - to finish| so.
hekipon - to choose| so.
hekuzn - conscience
herogzal - unending
heron - to end
hewiimon - to live out/survive| so.
hlaap - goose
hloam - bear
hoon - ocean
hwak - car
hwiion - to bounce
ibeenon - to try| so.
iinon - to let| so.
iinzon - to fall asleep
imbuňkon - to age
imbuumon - to grow
impeťon - to come true
inaakon - to treat| so.
iňgon - to become| so.
iňkafkon - to evaporate
iňkospon - to solidify
intoaskon - to liquify
inum - balance
iˀpiinon - to shrink
ptook - knee
ilaakon - to follow| so.
jad - dwarf
jazon - to think highly about/think worthy| so.
jobaksal - cross-country
joeen - name/noun
johoonal - cross-ocean
joľ - tail(body)
jomokon - to translate| so.
jooigon - to migrate/to move(to a place)
jool - creation
joolmok - conlang
joolik - conscript
joospon - to hug| so.
joostal - clever/innovative
jopasifikal - transpacific
josiijon - to traverse/cross
jowatlantikal - transatlantic
jugal - malevolent/evil
kab - god
kadz - state/territory/province
kafk - gas
kaikon - to stand
kaiyon - to read| so.
kakson - to function
kap - piece
kapam - chaos
kt - letter
kebugon - to fail| so.
keimakon - to avoid| so.
keison - to succeed/accomplish| so.
keiyeenon - to beat| so.
ken - job
kenk - tool
kenť - jobplace
kenon - to work/do a job
kepar - multiverse
kepon - to attack| so.
keseks - weapon
kekal - smart
keon - to use| so.
kif - energy
kispon - to excite| so.
kizn - exclamation
klipal - thin
klo - lake
koc - stone
koľpuť - necklace
koom - nature/environment
koskon - can
kosp - solid
ksik - paper
kubik - information
kugaton - to recite| so.
kugon - to say/tell| so.
kulks - elf
kuwek - knowledge
kuton - to know| so.
kuunal - real
kuunon - to exist
kuwť - entrance
kuwon - to enter| so.
kuznon - to understand| so.
kwaaigon - to seperate/to disperse
kwaz - 4th level thought
kwenon - to agree
kwepon - to be awake
kwideic - area
kwiaďon - to disperse
kwiuumon - to explode
kyaison - to demand| so.
kyok - contact
kyud - home
kyudť - house
kyudon - to live(somewhere)
lak - face
ľag - waste
leik - lateness
lekson - to win| so.
leľ - guitar
lempon - to affect|so.
lepan - tip/end(of an object)
lksal - entertaining
linal - short
lzn - joke
loson - to listen| to| so.
lot - color
ľo - beast/creature/animal
ľuk - duration
luwiimon - to experience| so.
maan - brain
maiy - mouth
makakson - to keep (so.) from functioning
makť - exit
makon - to exit/leave| so.
maľooz - head
maokon - to miss| so.
mapal - different
muď - cow
med - freedom
mep - the last
mibin - image/fotograph
mim - a dublicate
mims - the same (adv.)
mimon - to be the same| as| so.
mixam - sheen
mixamon - to shine
mizn - rhetorical question/sarcastic statement
modal - hard/difficult
modwezobal - uncountable/infinite
mogisal - boring
moiyon - to bore| so.
moiyuson - to be bored
mok - language
mokakson - to be nonfunctional
mokenibet - linguistics
mokenibetď - linguist
mokal - stupid
mom - conversation
momon - to speak
moal - still/motionless/unmoving
moť - darkness
moxnaik - grammar
mřon - to moo
mudz - shadow
muˀg - sadness
myekon - to permit| so.
myoňkon - to collide/crash| into| so.
ňaanon - to want/wish| for| so.
naguk - news
naik - manner/pattern
nkoof - planet
ns - only
naspk - anything
nataď - anyone
nug - island
neekal - dry
nefal - possible
nefar - universe
negon - to be connected
neiy - love(intimate)
neňk - sex
neuť - sphere
nibiyagaamom - cell phone
nibiyobal - portable
nibiyon - to carry| so.
niiksisal - Genitive
niikson - to have| so.
nikuunon - to coincide| with| so.
nikwenon - to admit
nim - female
nimon - to bend
nimpon - to change
nimtiˀ - semicolon
ňip - star
nipkepal - complicated
nizuton - to know one another
not - servitude/slavery
nyeh - horse
nykal - wet
ol - ear
olimpiakiiyal - Olympic
pabunton - to instruct| so.
pabuwon - to expand| so.
pacon - to cause| so.
padeeyon - to assemble| so.
paglanon - to put into words| so.
pagočkon - to value| so.
pagon - to control| so.
paiňkťiinon - to lull| so.
pakuznon - to teach| so.
pakwenon - to convince| so.
pandon - to alter| so.
papiyon - to shrink| so.
paťketon - to make a song out of| so.
payon - to force| so.
pazdon - to unite| so.
pauxon - to anger| so.
pef - chest(body)
pepson - to switch| so.
peť - truth
peťiksal - correct
pex̌ - lightning
pik - clock
piňk - youngling
piťk - eye
piyal - small
piys - somewhat
piyumzal - hallowed/sacred/holy
piyumzť - heaven/sacred place/holy place
pizon - to like| so.
plf - spring
planal - cute
pľoiy - finger
pľoiyon - to point| out/at| so.
pľozgon - to poke| so.
pľuť - ring
pokaat - chicken
pootip - stream
pootipon - to stream
pskon - to like| sth.
psok - shower(bathing)
pťanon - to spit| so.
pu demo - percent
pu zamo - permille
puton - to pass| by| so.
puz - sky
pyav - child
pyogal - terrible/very bad
qumon - to growl
radz - road
rainal - beautiful
řauň - cat
rav - one's whole
reenon - to need| so.
řeisal - quiet
riˀit - frog
rikal - funny
řľnon - to purr
řfon - to bark
abon - to meet| so.
adaoon - to deceive| so.
ďeenisal - Dative
ďeenon - to do for| so.
aďon - to come
sadwezeks - calculator
sadwezk - computer
sadwezon - to compute| so.
sagaimon - to search for| so.
sagočkon - to evaluate| so.
saiřon - to begin
saks - money
sapon - to determine| so.
sakon - to push| so.
sdauon - to set aside| so.
seeimaguk - weekly news
seft - science
seif - married person
seiť - plain
eknon - to tire
sen - language and orthography
en - tree
enť - forest
eps - back
epucanon - to undergo| so.
etsal - fast
sibenon - to behold/look at| so.
f - mark
siguuon - to forget| so.
iifon - to drink| so.
siijon - to move
siinť - bed
siinon - to sleep
sijeer - barrier
sik - the north
ikon - to write| so.
si - grass
iton - to run
iy - hair
skazon - to believe| so.
kin - pleasure
lautikal - premature
smeekon - to marry| so.
sniik - importance
sniikal - important
soňkon - to fade
sozbal - hard
spk - thing
sposal - wide
spuukon - to pour| so.
stamon - to receive| so.
stp - cloud
ukoľpuť - medallion/medal
sumboľ - airliner
supon - to dirty| so.
surť - school
suron - to teach| so.
susps - early
k - rain
suulal - meaningless
uumon - to fly
uuňk - airplane
uuw - wind
wdon - to go on foot
syamon - to speak one's mind/say/propose| so.
yuť - circle
ťadecon - to put/place| so.
tak - method/way
ťandon - to add| so.
taut - direction
tautisal - Directional
tedeskiksal - omnipotent
teeňk - metal
teepon - to eat| so.
tefk - steam
tekuwekiksal - omniscient
tesp - difficulty
tetviniksal - omnipresent/all-seeing
ťfin - flower
tfuugon - to wrong/err/make a mistake
tiˀ - period(.)
tibyeton - to examen| so.
ťikal - good
ťikeňal - benevolent
tikookon - to tick
ťnaakon - to respect| so.
ťit - light
ťket - music
ťniˀ - nose
toask - liquid
toodow - heart
topuunon - to remove| so.
tseekd - boss
tseuuvon - to lose to| so.
tsic - speed
tsiksal - moving/mobile
tsuk - story
tťet - tooth
ťuk - earlyness
tuumal - close
unon - to happen
usp - arm
uuv - moon
uwegon - to multiply| by| so.
u - lava
vigugon - to show| so.
vin - that which is seen
vidon - to climb| so.
vuket - magnetism
vyoľon - to carry| so.
waik - cycle
wait - 5th level thought
wam - space
was - foot
waťs - extremely
weif - blood
wek - the west
wen - left
wideenon - to invent| so.
widiňkson - to provide| so.
wiguuzon - to come to an end/perish
wiimon - to live
wimtik - age
winiikson - to earn| so.
winimpon - to influence| so.
wis - top
wiabon - to combine
wiam - sunrise
wiiifon - to drown
wison - to rise
wiwiimon - to endure/survive
wf - dog
xam - sun
x̌ikn - cleanliness
x̌its - song
xof - earth
xum - worth
xunal - long
x̌yus - center
yam - logic/reason
yaoľ - hand
ya - chance
yegon - to hope
yikuwal - important/good to know
yok - the east
yon - right
yum - underside
yuam - sunset
yuzon - to fall
yuon - to leave| so.
aaikon - to cut/slice| so.
zaaľon - to start/activate| so.
af - fire
afam - volcano
afon - to burn
zaknon - to appear
aľ - dragon
zn - sentence/2nd level thought
zniksal - sentient
zap - county
zs - the three
zav - triplets(unrel.)
zdagln - conjunction
zdan - unit
zdans - together
zdanon - to unite
zdexon - to take with| so.
zdyunon - to collect| so.
zeen - reason/purpose
eton - to flee| so.
zgeeron - to stop
zgiz - interest
iikon - to lead| so.
iiv - love(friendly)
ziiz - bee
odzal - slow
zos - width
řařon - to roar
zuk - the south
zuton - to be familiar with| so.
uxal - angry
zykson - to love| sth.


Time Expressions

aaks - then
but - past
byubal - previous
byubs - previously
cem - tomorrow
cep - a while
cijun - winter
čkaf - year
ďam - today
deňkaf - century
dskuw - morning
dom - yesterday
gaatal - old
hep - how long
heps - how long(adv.)
hiik - when(what time)
hiiks - when(adv.)
iik - present
iiks - now
jam - day
jtal - of the far future
jugan - season
juv - month
kipc - moment
koňkaf - 10000 years
kyutm - noon
kyutv - mindnight
ladom - day before yesterday
minuut - minute
natik - anytime
nečkaf - decade
oľ - hour
plojun - spring
aďal - next
seim - week
seimaheer - weekend
ejun - fall
ekenon - to tire
sekuund - second
serik - eternity
seriks - forever
skam - day(time)
skuv - night(time)
lak - future
soks - never
ucem - day after tomorrow
teks - always
tekmiy - evening
tiik - time
tuutal - new
twatal - of the near future
uuks - in that distant time
xajun - summer
zaňkaf - millenium

Senses

kiinon - to feel| so.
lunon - to hear| so.
bizon - to see| so.
ťnon - to smell| so.
thison - to taste| so.
kyokon - to touch| so.

Family Words

dweta_ - great grand(parent/child)
dwod - twin(related)
ladun - son
ladim - daughter
nŝta_ - grand(parent/child)
udun - father
udim - mother
wad - family
wodun - brother
zod - triplet(rel.)

Color Words

klot - blue
le_ - light/bright(color)
ľo_ - dark(color)
molot - black
elot - green
telot - white
templot - silver
wilot - red
xalot - yellow

Measurement Words

ampeer - ampere
um - ohm
aunts - ounce
bekeqeel - becquerel
daltn - dalton
demegram - centigram
demogram - hectogram
faaqenhait - fahrenheit
feřd - farad
ft - foot
galn - gallon
gram - gram
gřeiy - gray
henřiy - henry
hřts - hertz
nc - inch
juul - joule
kandeel - candela
katal - katal
kelvn - kelvin
kuloom - coulomb
liter - litre
luks - lux
lumen - lumen
mal - mile
meter - metre
mol - mole
nebgram - decagram
nobgram - decigram
nyuˀn - newton
paskaal - pascal
phaund - pound
radian - radian
sekuund - second
selsius - celsius
sivřt - sievert
steradian - steradian
tn - ton
tnˀ - tonne
teslaˀ - tesla
vebaˀ - weber
volt - volt
wat - watt
zamegram - milligram
zamogram - kilogram
zimenz - siemens
dalř - dollar
eurow - euro
ľubl - ruble
fqoňk - frank
pesow - peso
eň - yen
rupyaaˀ - rupee
yen - yuan
coloon - colon(monetary unit)
pheniy - penny
sent - cent
kpyeikˀ - kopek

Question Words

hn - what
hav - who
hiiks - when
hep - how long
haiks - how
hwez - how many
heens - why

Prepositions

Accusative:

wi - of a higher order than, greater than
yu - of a lesser order than, less than
fa - in front of, leading, giving leadership to
go - behind, in support| of, supporting
ni - of the same mind as
nimo - of a different mind than
tuu - near to, close to
gaa - distant from, far from
ci - by, by the hands of
du - between (e.g. "just between you and me")
kwi - about, on the subject of
mi - just ... as, as ... as
kwa - separate from
yau - at ...'s side, by ...'s side
jo - different from, apart from
gľoi - ruling, in control of
kreu - enslaved by, at the bottom of
di - alongside, following but with equal importance as
pu - for each, from each, per

Dative:

a - for, with the intent to give to, with ... in mind
bu - from, with ...'s intent to give
ni - with, in concourse with, plus, added to, using
nimo - without, minus, removed from, without using
ci - specifically in reference to, about
mi - similar|ly to, like
kwa - tangent of
jo - on the contrary| to

Locative:

ku - in, inside| of, on the inside| of, within
kyo - on, attached to, attached to the outer side of
ma - out| of, outside| of, on the outside| of
wi - above, in the space above| of
yu - beneath, below, in the space underneath| of
fa - in front of, before, on this side| of
go - behind, on the far side| of
tuu - near| to, close| to, nearby, close by, in the vicinity| of
gaa - far| from, far away, nowhere near
ci - at, by, in close proximity| to, at the position of
we - left| of, on the left| of, on the left side| of
yo - right| of, on the right| of, on the right side| of
du - in between, in the space between, between
lu - during, within the time of, while ... is or was or will be occurring
ľe - at, at about, at around, around, about (time expressions)
na - near| to, close| to, almost (time expressions)
li - far| from, far away| from (time expressions)
u - before, preceding (time expressions)
la - after, afterwards
kwi - around, surrounding, all around, in every direction
kosi - north| of, to the north| of
kozu - south| of, to the south| of
kowe - west| of, to the west| of
koyo - east| of, to the east| of
kwa - apart, separate
yau - to or on the side| of, beside, next to
jo - across from, on the other side| of
gľoi - on| top of
kreu - on the underside| of, underneath
di - along the side| of, alongside, stretched across the edge| of
lila - long after
liu - long before
nala - soon or just after
nau - soon or just before
kukwi - throughout, around within, all throughout

Directional:

a - to, towards, in the direction| of
bu - away from, in the direction opposite| of
ku - into, form the outside to the inside of, from the outside inwards
kyo - onto, from away from to a position attached to
ma - out of, from the inside to the outside of, from the inside outwards
wi - up, upwards, from above upwards
yu - down, downwards, from beneath downwards
fa - to the front| of, to the front side| of, from elsewhere to the front| of
go - behind, to the far side| of, from elsewhere to the far side| of
tuu - nearby
gaa - far away| from
ci - in the same direction and position as
we - to the left side| of, from elsewhere to the left side| of
yo- to the right side| of, from elsewhere to the right side| of
du - through, from one side through to the other side| of
lu - during for a time or while
ľe - until (time expressions)
la - since
kwi - around, in every direction| outwards
kosi - northwards
kozu - southwards
kowe - westwards
koyo - eastwards
kwa - in opposite directions from
yau - to the side of, from elsewhere to the side| of
jo - across, from one side to the other| of
gľoi - over, from one side above to the other side| of
kreu - below, from one side underneath to the other side| of
di - along, alongside, along the side| of
kukwi - throughout, all around the inside| of
kudi - along(through)/down(a road/path)/across(a bridge)

Pre-positioned Adjectives

a - a(n)
ta - the
teta - every/each/all
nata - any/some/a few or couple/several
gopa - few
kepa - much/many
sota - no
iiťa - this/these(near me)
aaťa - that/those(near you)
uuťa - that/those(near neither)
eipa - (an)other/some more/a few or couple more
fara - whole
mima - same
kwoda - most
mepa - last
nfa - only

Modifiers

de - affirmative emphatic marker
bo - negative emphatic marker
si - affirmative non-emphatic marker
fu - negative non-emphatic marker

Other Important Words/Phrases

.ne. - Yes(what you said is correct).
.moo. - No(what you said is false).
kipa! - Hello!
heps wiimab? - How old are you?
hnze dego joeenon gwe? - What's your name?
hnal oľ aanai? - What time is it?
.aanai nebal. - It's ten o' clock.
.aanai seinal ni zaanb. - It's seven thirty.
haiks kiine? - How are you?
kugiivs! - Welcome!
makiins! - Goodbye!
kuniihins! - Fairwell!
ťikaas! - Good luck!
make! - Bye!
.n ni dwe aanai za. - One plus two is three
.po nimo za aanai dwe. - Five minus three is two.
.kuuno ci iiťci. - I am here.
.po dwecep aanai neb. - Five times two is ten.
wei! - Hey!
{tshe} - Ha!(sarcastic)
wo! - Wow!
.ya. - Maybe.

Suffixes

Gerund
_is
Recieved gerund
_us
Completed action
_edal
Thing that does
_k
Thing that recieves the doing
_uek
Person that does
_d
Person that recieves the doing
_auw
Place suffix

ability suffix
_ob
wanting suffix
_eňal
having suffix
_iksal
not having suffix
_ogzal
study-of suffix
_ibet
borne-of suffix
_eiy
Thing that is
_n
Person that is
_an
causing suffix
_acal
This that is used for
_eks
Person that is used for
_aks

Prefixes

All prefix
te(t)_
Non prefix
mo(w)_
Pseudo prefix
mi(m)_
Transitive prefix
pa(y)_
Intransitive prefix
de(n)_
Again prefix
re(y)_
Reflection prefix
e(p)_
Apart prefix
ka(p)_
Back prefix
fo(r)_
Perfective refix
he(r)_
Ultimizer prefix
wi(k)_
Finding prefix
sa(f)_
De/dis/des prefix
go(s)_

Numbers

mo - zero
n - one
dwe - two
za - three
koi - four
po - five
vi - six
sei - seven
hau - eight
mu - nine
neb - ten
neb - eleven
nebwe - twelve
dweenb - twenty
zaanb - thirty
zaanb - thirty one
demo - (one) hundred
dweedemo - two hundred
zaademo - three hundred
zaademo-dweenb - three hundred tweny one
zamo - (one) thousand
komo - ten thousand

Cunjunctions

ke - and
so - but
ca - or
ťa - that
wa (decl.) - who
a(decl.) - that(non-sentient objects)
apu - because
dos - as such/so/therefore
ki - when
ťet - then
ko - in order to
ai - if
zee - because
au - as
ned - even though
hlu - while

Code:
Noun
Numb.          Nom.          Acc.          Dat.          Loc.          Dir.          Gen.
Sing.          _             _            _(e)ze        _(e)ci        _(a)cu        _al
Pl.            _           _(e)na        _(e)sa        _(e)is       _(a)uz       _al

Descriptors
Numb.          Nom.          Acc.          Dat.          Loc.          Dir.          Gen.
Sing.          _al           _k           _ez           _eic          _auc          _alu
Pl.            _el           _as           _ad           _eiď          _auť          _elu

Pronouns
Nom.          Acc.          Dat.          Loc.          Dir.          Gen.
to            go            do            jo            co            twal
we            gwe           dwe           we           we           wal
bun           gun           dun           jun           cun           val
pin           kin           tin           jin           cin           fal
la            ga            ze            cei           cau           lal
to           gon           dos           joť           coď           jal
te           gen           des           jeť           ceď           cal
we           gwen          dwes          weť          weď          al
la           gan           zes           ceiť          cauď          hlal

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Last edited by LingoDingo on Sun Mar 25, 2012 12:29 am; edited 32 times in total
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 01, 2012 5:23 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

With the vocabulary given above, see if you can figure out which poem this is translated from:

.za pľuť a kulksacetsdesa yu puzci.
.seinn a jadacetsdesa ku ajatis koceiť aaťeiť.
.munn a aďesa guuzobad(we aanais coňgusedel a guuzon).
.nnn a jugacetsdze kyo cyaťci jugeic aaťeic
ku gyuweci<mordoreic>(ku aaťci mudz amesais).
.n pľuť a cetson tetna..n pľuť a faton gan.
.n pľuť a bwiyon tetna;ke ku moťci pazdon gan
ku gyuweci<mordoreic>(ku aaťci mudz amesais).

Note: Compound words can be made from a noun and an adjective by removing the final consonant of the Nominative form of the adjective that agrees with the noun in gender and fuzing it onto the front of the noun.
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Last edited by LingoDingo on Sat Feb 04, 2012 9:26 pm; edited 1 time in total
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eldin raigmore
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 01, 2012 10:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well, it seems to start out
"three ring(-something) something something under sky-place".
So I'm guessing it's "three rings for the elven kings under the sky".

And I see that "kulks" is "elf".

"sein" seems to have to do with "seven".

"jad" is "dwarf".

"ajat" is "hallway". That's not the same as "hall". I think either you used the wrong conlang word in the poem, or you used the wrong English gloss word in your wordlist.

"" looks like a plural ending.

"ku" seems to be a preposition that's been used as a prefix in making infinitives and action-nominalizations and result-nominalizations. Does it mean "in"?

I bet "acetsdesa" means "ruler". Or it means "boss" or "king" or "lord". I couldn't work it out; it seems to be "ace" plus "tsd" plus "esa", but none of those seem to show up separately.

Just found "cetson - to rule". Still can't figure out "d".

"koc" is "stone".

"aď" is "person". I assume it also means "human".

"guuzon" means "to die", so I guess "guuzobad" or "guuzobadwe" probably means "mortal".

"aanai" seems to mean "is". I don't know how it fits.

"coňgon" is "to doom", so I guess "coňgusedel" means "doomed" (at least, it's the passive participle").

"n" seems to mean "one". At any rate, "ns" means "only".

"jugan" is "season" and "jugal" is "malevolent or evil". I guess "jugacetsdze" means "evil emperor" or something like that.

Does "kyo" have to do with touching? Maybe it means "next" or "next to"?

"cyaťci" means "throne".

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PostPosted: Thu Feb 02, 2012 4:39 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Not bad, not bad at all.

I messed up a bit with seinn, munn and nnn. I was looking to say seven ones, nine ones and one one but I instead have ended up with seventh ones, ninth ones and first one. Perhaps just saying the number would work.

eldin raigmore wrote:
"ajat" is "hallway". That's not the same as "hall". I think either you used the wrong conlang word in the poem, or you used the wrong English gloss word in your wordlist.


"ajat" doesn't specifically mean just hallway(maybe passage or passageway would have worked better). It means any room or hallway inside a structure that serves as a means of getting to another part of that structure, excluding, of course, stairways and elevators.

eldin raigmore wrote:
I bet "acetsdesa" means "ruler". Or it means "boss" or "king" or "lord". I couldn't work it out; it seems to be "ace" plus "tsd" plus "esa", but none of those seem to show up separately.


"cetsd" means, literally, "one who rules". "_esa" is the Dative plural ending. The "_a_" is part of "kulksa_" and "jada_" making them be the adjective form as opposed to the noun form.


eldin raigmore wrote:
Just found "cetson - to rule". Still can't figure out "d".


"_d" means "one who does", as in a person.

eldin raigmore wrote:
"guuzon" means "to die", so I guess "guuzobad" or "guuzobadwe" probably means "mortal".


"guuzobad" does mean mortal. The part in the parenthesis is a separate clause.

eldin raigmore wrote:
"aanai" seems to mean "is". I don't know how it fits.


"aanais coňgusedel" means "are doomed"(i.e. that is a characteristic of the subjects).

eldin raigmore wrote:
"jugan" is "season" and "jugal" is "malevolent or evil". I guess "jugacetsdze" means "evil emperor" or something like that.


I think I'll change "jugan", partly because it would be the same as "one who is evil", but also because I would like to derive it from the words "year" and "part" instead of "month" and "group".


eldin raigmore wrote:
Does "kyo" have to do with touching? Maybe it means "next" or "next to"?


"kyo" means "on", i.e. touching.

A very good job so far, considering it's a language that has no other resources.
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 02, 2012 11:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks!
LingoDingo wrote:
eldin raigmore wrote:
"ajat" is "hallway". That's not the same as "hall". I think either you used the wrong conlang word in the poem, or you used the wrong English gloss word in your wordlist.
"ajat" doesn't specifically mean just hallway(maybe passage or passageway would have worked better). It means any room or hallway inside a structure that serves as a means of getting to another part of that structure, excluding, of course, stairways and elevators.

Then (I think) you misunderstood the original. "Hall" means "3. A manor house" in the poem (IMO); or "great hall".


LingoDingo wrote:
eldin raigmore wrote:
"jugan" is "season" and "jugal" is "malevolent or evil". I guess "jugacetsdze" means "evil emperor" or something like that.
I think I'll change "jugan", partly because it would be the same as "one who is evil", but also because I would like to derive it from the words "year" and "part" instead of "month" and "group".

Some word should mean "dark", because in the original it's "One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne".
Maybe "a moťacetsdze kyo cyaťci moťeic aaťeic".


LingoDingo wrote:
eldin raigmore wrote:
Does "kyo" have to do with touching? Maybe it means "next" or "next to"?
"kyo" means "on", i.e. touching.

Thanks!

And "ku" means "in".

"gyuw" means "land".

I'm betting "aaťci" means "where".

"mudz" means "shadow".

"ames" means "await". So that second half of that line is "where the shadows (lie in) wait".

I don't know what "tetna" means, nor what "gen" means. Probably "tetna" mans "all" and "gen" means "them".

"a" means "for". If it's followed by an infinitive, it means "for to" or "in order to".

"faton" means "to find" or "to locate".

"bwiyon" means "to bring".

Does "ke" mean "and"? Couldn't find it above the poem.

"moť" means "darkness".

Does "pazdon" mean "to bind"?
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 03, 2012 3:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

eldin raigmore wrote:
Then (I think) you misunderstood the original. "Hall" means "3. A manor house" in the poem (IMO); or "great hall".


Perhaps something like kyudť binal or one of my forced evolutions thereof would be better then?

eldin raigmore wrote:
Some word should mean "dark", because in the original it's "One for the Dark Lord on his dark throne".
Maybe "a moťacetsdze kyo cyaťci moťeic aaťeic".


I was thinking it was a metaphorical allusion to malevolence, but perhaps it would be better to allow for metaphors and stick to them in translations in Aalmok.

Very good job!

Yes, ke does mean and. I left out prepositions, pronouns, prepositioned adjectives, and suffixes because they are in lists within the topic already.

Prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, and numbers can all be found in the first post and anything else on that word list can be found on page 2 of this topic.

Pazdon can mean to bind and does in this sense. A more inclusive translation would be to unite(transitive).

Also, you were right about a, though it is important to note that it doesn't work as a conjunction and one must use ko in that case.
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 03, 2012 10:44 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

.ku moťci aan aďal afai;ke ta maan nfa sijeer aanai.

This sentence somewhat shows the flexibility of word order in a sentence. It's somewhat of a proverb-esque thing I came up with this afternoon.

I feel like deciphering sentences is a good way to absorb the concepts of a language, do you agree?

I can pull up some more deciphering challenges if you like them.
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PostPosted: Sat Feb 04, 2012 5:16 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

LingoDingo wrote:
.ku moťci aan aďal afai;ke ta maan nfa sijeer aanai.

In dark be person burn; and ? brain ? barrier be
Couldn't figure out ta nor nfa, and wasn't sure of the morphology on some of the other words.


LingoDingo wrote:
This sentence somewhat shows the flexibility of word order in a sentence.

How, exactly?
If you re-ordered it into something that was still grammatical,
I assume it would still mean the same thing semantically,
but would be different pragmatically.
Can you show how?


LingoDingo wrote:
It's somewhat of a proverb-esque thing I came up with this afternoon.

It's probably good, but I could appreciate it better if you translated it for us.


LingoDingo wrote:
I feel like deciphering sentences is a good way to absorb the concepts of a language, do you agree?

Oh, yes. So is translating into the language.


LingoDingo wrote:
I can pull up some more deciphering challenges if you like them.

Sure!
And I can give you some.

First; Write what you've got in this thread, in your "conscript" or neography.

Also: Try the "One bright day, late at night, two dead boys rose up to fight" poem in the "Things to Translate" thread.

Or the "Higgledy-piggledy, my fine hen, she lays eggs for gentlemen" one.

Or the nursery rhyme "This is the House that Jack Built".

Or the first page (or half-page) of "Moby Dick" or "The War of the Worlds" or "A Tale of Two Cities".

Or this one:
"If a hen-and-a-half need a day-and-a-half to lay an egg-and-a-half,
how long does it take one hen to lay one egg?".

____________________________________________________________

This entire subforum contains things to translate into your conlang and transcribe into your conscript.

You could start with the ones with the most replies. Or you could skip some of them.
Whatever you want
Things To Write in Your Conscript/Conlang
Guess how to pronounce this
Quotes
Tower of Babel
"The Road Not Taken", by Robert Frost

There are others that are also liked.
Cthulhu
Here I Go - 2500 words Shocked
Random Emitare poetry
James while John had had...
The best way
Al convinced Bob to force Charlie to give Dasher to ...
The Proverbs of Cordelier
We the people
Love hurts
Cthulhu Noster
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The Celebrity ("The Illustrious Dragon of England and W
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PostPosted: Sat Feb 04, 2012 7:19 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

In the darkness one's soul burns, and the mind is the only barrier.

More literally it is: In darkness the soul of a person burns, and the brain the only barrier is.

In Aalmok, so long as any modifiers are where they are supposed to be, you can put those pieces anywhere without changing the denotation of the sentence. Sentences with a verb that doesn't change the case, like aanon, are a little bit less reorder-able, since you have to make sure that you're saying this is that and not that is this by keeping this before that, if you understand my meaning.

Take, for instance, the sentence, The mind is the only barrier.
The ways this can be said in Aalmok are thus:
.ta maan aanai nfa sijeer.
.ta maan nfa sijeer aanai.
.aanai ta maan nfa sijeer.
ta maan, nfa sijeer and aanai are the pieces that we can move around in the sentence. In this one-case sentence, so long as ta maan, nfa sijeer and aanai are not broken apart and ta maan comes before nfa sijeer, the meaning is preserved.

The person brought their love a few flowers.
.aď bwiyoi a neiydze nata ťfinena.
.aď bwiyoi nata ťfinena a neiydze.
.aď a neiydze bwiyoi nata ťfinena.
.aď nata ťfinena bwiyoi a neiydze.
.aď a neiydze nata ťfinena bwiyoi.
.aď nata ťfinena a neiydze bwiyoi.
.bwiyoi aď a neiydze nata ťfinena.
.bwiyoi aď nata ťfinena a neiydze.
.bwiyoi a neiydze aď nata ťfinena.
.bwiyoi nata ťfinena aď a neiydze.
.bwiyoi a neiydze nata ťfinena aď.
.bwiyoi nata ťfinena a neiydze aď.
.a neiydze aď bwiyoi nata ťfinena.
.a neiydze aď nata ťfinena bwiyoi.
.a neiydze bwiyoi aď nata ťfinena.
.a neiydze nata ťfinena aď bwiyoi.
.a neiydze bwiyoi nata ťfinena aď.
.a neiydze nata ťfinena bwiyoi aď.
.nata ťfinena aď bwiyoi a neiydze.
.nata ťfinena aď a neiydze bwiyoi.
.nata ťfinena bwiyoi aď a neiydze.
.nata ťfinena a neiydze aď bwiyoi.
.nata ťfinena bwiyoi a neiydze aď.
.nata ťfinena a neiydze bwiyoi aď.
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PostPosted: Sat Feb 04, 2012 9:21 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

By the way, I added the prepositions; numbers; pre-positioned adjectives; conjuctions; suffixes; prefixes; and noun, pronoun, and adjective declensions to the vocabulary post.
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 06, 2012 11:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

LingoDingo wrote:
By the way, I added the prepositions; numbers; pre-positioned adjectives; conjuctions; suffixes; prefixes; and noun, pronoun, and adjective declensions to the vocabulary post.

And LingoDingo said: "Let there be coolness"; and there was coolness. Cool
(I am shamelessly imitating Genesis Chapter 1 Verse 3.)

Thanks! Smile


LingoDingo wrote:
you can put those pieces anywhere without changing the denotation of the sentence.

But re-ordering always changes something. How, if at all, does the re-ordering change the connotation of the sentence?

_____________________________________________________________

Why do they start and end each sentence with a period?

There are good reasons the Spanish started putting upside-down exclamation points and question-marks at the beginnings of their written exclamations and questions. Factories used to employ a reader to entertain and/or educate the workers by reading aloud, and it helped the reader to know how to intone (and stress and inflect) a sentence if s/he knew when it started whether it was going to be declarative or interrogative or exclamatory, rather than having to glance ahead to the sentence's end.

There are also good reasons quotations begin with upside-down or backwards quotation-marks in several languages. (French quotation-marks are <<and>>. English single-quotation-marks are ` and '.)

But why would your conpeople need to write and read the information that, at the beginning of a declarative or imperative sentence, that that was the sentence's beginning? Wouldn't it be enough to know that the sentence just before had ended?

Spanish readers don't have a period at the beginning of a sentence. They know the sentence is beginning because the last sentence has just ended. They need to know whether the sentence now beginning is going to be a question or an exclamation, but they don't need anything special to tell them it's a declaration or an imperative.

Do your conspeakers have a different sentence-melody for imperatives from that for declaratives and from that for exclamations? If so, wouldn't it make better sense to mark the beginnings and ends of imperatives than of declaratives (because declaratives distinctly outnumber each other type of sentence)?

Maybe your conspeakers have different sentence-melodies for irrealis than for realis? Or for negations than for affirmations? Or for conditionals than for other clauses? Maybe, for protases than for apodeses?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(And I wrote all of that, just because of some dots!) Rolling Eyes Wink
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 06, 2012 11:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

eldin raigmore wrote:
LingoDingo wrote:
you can put those pieces anywhere without changing the denotation of the sentence.


But re-ordering always changes something. How, if at all, does the re-ordering change the connotation of the sentence?


Indeed it does. My feeling on this is similar to that of the Russians. IMO, i feel that putting the so-called most important part of a sentence at the end she be a sort of more elevated speech. I.e. the way you order things in a sentence indicates the meaningfulness of the most emphasized piece. I think that intonation is a valuable asset in the meaning of words and sentences. Let's take the The person brought their love a few flowers sentence and mark the emphasized part in the spoken version with italics(I'm picking a random part to emphasize):

.aď bwiyoi nata ťfinena a neiydze.

This version is using the typical word order of S-V-DO-IO-LOC-DIR. It's essentially basic, everyday speech. nata ťfinena holds the most significant meaning in this sentence. But not as much meaning as it would have if ordered so:

.aď bwiyoi a neiydze nata ťfinena.

Though this deviates from the so-called normal speech, It strengthens the emphasis on the stressed words by a sizable amount.
It's sort of like the last words you'll ever hear thing from the movies, just to a lesser extent of course.

Makes sense?

eldin raigmore wrote:
Why do they start and end each sentence with a period?


Well, I'll just start by saying it doesn't really have anything to do with knowing how to intone the sentence ahead. It has to do with the concept of zn, aka the sentence-thought. I treat each thought as an individual that should be enclosed to mark that individuality. Most written items in Aalsen are like that. The only things that don't work by enclosing both sides of something are the semicolon and the colon since their purposes are, not to introduce a new though, but to add to the one already in progress. Every zn is enclosed on both sides, whether it be a mizn, hzn, kizn or gazn. It's merely the thought of surrounded, full, individual entities.
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 07, 2012 8:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

LingoDingo wrote:
eldin raigmore wrote:
But re-ordering always changes something. How, if at all, does the re-ordering change the connotation of the sentence?

Indeed it does. My feeling on this is similar to that of the Russians. IMO, i feel that putting the so-called most important part of a sentence at the end she be a sort of more elevated speech. I.e. the way you order things in a sentence indicates the meaningfulness of the most emphasized piece. I think that intonation is a valuable asset in the meaning of words and sentences. Let's take the The person brought their love a few flowers sentence and mark the emphasized part in the spoken version with italics(I'm picking a random part to emphasize):

.aď bwiyoi nata ťfinena a neiydze.

This version is using the typical word order of S-V-DO-IO-LOC-DIR. It's essentially basic, everyday speech. nata ťfinena holds the most significant meaning in this sentence. But not as much meaning as it would have if ordered so:

.aď bwiyoi a neiydze nata ťfinena.

Though this deviates from the so-called normal speech, It strengthens the emphasis on the stressed words by a sizable amount.
It's sort of like the last words you'll ever hear thing from the movies, just to a lesser extent of course.

Makes sense?

Yes! Cool Thank you. Smile

_____________________________________________________________

LingoDingo wrote:
Well, I'll just start by saying it doesn't really have anything to do with knowing how to intone the sentence ahead. It has to do with the concept of zn, aka the sentence-thought. I treat each thought as an individual that should be enclosed to mark that individuality. Most written items in Aalsen are like that. The only things that don't work by enclosing both sides of something are the semicolon and the colon since their purposes are, not to introduce a new though, but to add to the one already in progress. Every zn is enclosed on both sides, whether it be a mizn, hzn, kizn or gazn. It's merely the thought of surrounded, full, individual entities.


When you say "a sentence-like thought" or "a sentence or 2nd-level thought", do you mean "a clause", or do you mean "a sentence", or what? In other words, how could I tell what a zn is? I guess I don't understand yet. For one thing I don't know what a "2nd-level thought" is.

What about utterances that aren't sentences nor clauses, such as "Hey!"

A gazn is "a statement or a 3rd-level thought". What's that mean? And what's a first-level thought? And are there any 4th-level thoughts?

_____________________________________________________________

I forgot that in most European languages that use a Latin alphabet, especially in those that are Germanic or Romance, sentences begin with a capital letter; whether they're declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

French (and AFAIK other Romance languages) use capitals a lot less than German (and to a lesser degree other Germanic languages).

For one thing, in French, an adjective derived from a proper name, is not capitalized; only the proper name itself is.
Further, in French, names of days of the week and months of the year are not considered proper names.

In such languages, capital letters always denote either the beginning of a sentence or the first letter of a proper name.

In German, however, the first letter of every noun (? or is it only the subject and all the objects (direct or indirect)?) is capitalized, even if it's a common noun. PROPER NOUNS are often written in ALL CAPS. In English (and I think also in other Germanic languages) an adjective derived from a proper noun is also capitalized. Certain pronouns, in particular the first person singular nominative and the second person formal/honorific nominative, are also capitalized in German.

So, in Germanic languages such as English, a capital letter at the beginning of a word doesn't necessarily mark the beginning of a sentence.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 08, 2012 3:12 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

eldin raigmore wrote:
When you say "a sentence-like thought" or "a sentence or 2nd-level thought", do you mean "a clause", or do you mean "a sentence", or what? In other words, how could I tell what a zn is? I guess I don't understand yet. For one thing I don't know what a "2nd-level thought" is.

What about utterances that aren't sentences nor clauses, such as "Hey!"

A gazn is "a statement or a 3rd-level thought". What's that mean? And what's a first-level thought? And are there any 4th-level thoughts?


I have 5 levels of thought:

glan - a word (interjections count)
zn - a sentence (I'm not entirely sure how to define this one, it's not exactly the same as in English but it's extremely close)
gazn - a few zn, a paragraph (once again, difficult for me to think of a definition)
kwaz - an opinion; thoughts about so., held for a portion of one's life
wait - a philosophy, opinions based upon cultural upbringing or on revelations from meditation

While I can't seem to think of a good definition for zn or gazn, I can tell you how to know when you've finished one.

For zn: Once you've finished saying who did what to whom at someplace going somewhere, even if you don't use all those parts, you've finished your zn, unless you use ke,so or any other conjunction that allows another subject into the sentence, in which case, you must wait until the second subject's actions have been fully described (this can continue as many times as you use a conjunction, but they can be used willy-nilly, only if they are truly interrelated affirmatively or negatively)

For gazn: Once you've switched the topic which is being discussed, you've finished your gazn. Very much in the way we use paragraphs in English.

I gave them the translations I did simply because it was an easy way for me to remember that they are supposed to be treated as thoughts without writing a long definition(in other words, I didn't actually give that definition with the intention of having that be what everyone sees).

eldin raigmore wrote:
I forgot that in most European languages that use a Latin alphabet, especially in those that are Germanic or Romance, sentences begin with a capital letter; whether they're declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

French (and AFAIK other Romance languages) use capitals a lot less than German (and to a lesser degree other Germanic languages).

For one thing, in French, an adjective derived from a proper name, is not capitalized; only the proper name itself is.
Further, in French, names of days of the week and months of the year are not considered proper names.

In such languages, capital letters always denote either the beginning of a sentence or the first letter of a proper name.

In German, however, the first letter of every noun (? or is it only the subject and all the objects (direct or indirect)?) is capitalized, even if it's a common noun. PROPER NOUNS are often written in ALL CAPS. In English (and I think also in other Germanic languages) an adjective derived from a proper noun is also capitalized. Certain pronouns, in particular the first person singular nominative and the second person formal/honorific nominative, are also capitalized in German.

So, in Germanic languages such as English, a capital letter at the beginning of a word doesn't necessarily mark the beginning of a sentence.


Don't forget the introductory space used in all sentences that only use a single punctuation mark at the end, which is often taught to be longer than the ones in between words, even Chinese and Japanese use these introductory spaces. Imo, using a little old tiˀ(or period in transliterations) takes up less space than that big old space.

Also German's don't capitalize the 1st person singular pronoun, only the formal 2nd person(which can be either singular or plural) and this one is capitalized in every case: Sie, Sie, Ihnen, Ihre. And, yes, they do capitalize each and every noun, no matter what, though I've never heard of putting proper nouns in All-caps. I've certainly never seen it in any of the German literature or articles I've read.
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 09, 2012 10:32 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

LingoDingo wrote:
I have 5 levels of thought:

glan - a word (interjections count)
zn - a sentence (I'm not entirely sure how to define this one, it's not exactly the same as in English but it's extremely close)
gazn - a few zn, a paragraph (once again, difficult for me to think of a definition)
kwaz - an opinion; thoughts about so., held for a portion of one's life
wait - a philosophy, opinions based upon cultural upbringing or on revelations from meditation

While I can't seem to think of a good definition for zn or gazn, I can tell you how to know when you've finished one.
For zn: Once you've finished saying who did what to whom at someplace going somewhere, even if you don't use all those parts, you've finished your zn, unless you use ke,so or any other conjunction that allows another subject into the sentence, in which case, you must wait until the second subject's actions have been fully described (this can continue as many times as you use a conjunction, but they can be used willy-nilly, only if they are truly interrelated affirmatively or negatively)
For gazn: Once you've switched the topic which is being discussed, you've finished your gazn. Very much in the way we use paragraphs in English.
I gave them the translations I did simply because it was an easy way for me to remember that they are supposed to be treated as thoughts without writing a long definition(in other words, I didn't actually give that definition with the intention of having that be what everyone sees).

I see.

There are languages with clause-chains; and a chain of clauses can be bound more or less tightly, and the speakers know the difference.

Languages with clause-chains often don't have grammatically subordinate clauses; the consecutive clauses are treated as co-ordinately conjoined, though semantically they're often (I think usually) subordinate.

In my conlang with clause-chaining and switch-reference marking, I have three different tightnesses of chains, based on playwrighting. (Plus a fourth based on I just wanted my switch-reference scheme to make sense and be important.)

In French plays, a "scene" changes whenever a character enters or exits.
So, for my conlang's tightest clause-chains, every clause in the chain has to have the same participants as every other clause in the same chain. But they don't have to participate the same way; for instance, one clause might have Xenophon as the Agent and Yolanda as the Patient, then the next clause might have Yolanda as the Agent and Xenophon as the Patient.

In English plays, however, the scene changes when every character exits ("exeunt") or when the first character enters.
So, at the second-tightest tightness, the chain ends and a new chain begins when one clause has absolutely no participants in common with the next or the previous clause.

Then again, a scene changes whenever there's a radical shift either in location or in time.
So in my conlang's second-loosest chains, each clause takes place at the same time as or at a closely following or preceding time as the previous and/or next clause, and also at the same location or at a contiguous or nearly-contiguous location as the same and/or preceding clause.

There's also a loosest level, in which each clause has to have "something" (that is, some semantics, some portion of meaning) in common with the immediately preceding clause, with the immediately following clause, with the chain's first clause, and with the chain's last clause. This "something" could be a participant or a location or a time; or possibly something else I haven't thought of yet (or maybe not).

And, there's no requirement that any three clauses in the chain all share the same thing. So if you look at the middle (third) clause of a five-clause chain, although it has to have something in common with each of the other four clauses, it needn't have the same thing in common with any two of them.

If you looked at the middle (fourth) clause of a seven-clause chain, it needn't have anything in common with the second clause nor with the sixth clause. So "topic drift" is something that can happen in this loosest type of clause-chain.

So you see my conlang's clause-chains could vary from something corresponding to a complex sentence to something corresponding to a paragraph.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hebrew has the "waw-consecutives", which are basically chains of clauses all conjoined cordinately with "wa" or "waw".
The rules are:
(1) only affirmative clauses can be in these chains; and
(2) (a) if the first clause is perfective aspect, all the others must be imperfective aspect; while
(2) (b) if the first clause is imperfective aspect, all the others must be perfective aspect.


LingoDingo wrote:
Don't forget the introductory space used in all sentences that only use a single punctuation mark at the end, which is often taught to be longer than the ones in between words, even Chinese and Japanese use these introductory spaces. Imo, using a little old tiˀ(or period in transliterations) takes up less space than that big old space.
Also German's don't capitalize the 1st person singular pronoun, only the formal 2nd person(which can be either singular or plural) and this one is capitalized in every case: Sie, Sie, Ihnen, Ihre.

Sounds like you know more than I do.


LingoDingo wrote:
And, yes, they do capitalize each and every noun, no matter what, though I've never heard of putting proper nouns in All-caps. I've certainly never seen it in any of the German literature or articles I've read.

I've only seen the all-caps proper names in (usually type-written) letters (that is, epistles, missives, private communications). I've never seen it in print, except where the author was quoting a letter. Nor have I ever seen it in hand-written German.
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 20, 2012 4:21 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Major Change:

I've decided that the gender inflections for nouns and adjectives are largely ineffectual. They, both, make it difficult to make use of certain word final syllable structures and are also not likely to be used very often, if at all, in most conversations.

As such, I have decided to eradicate all gender-specific inflection from Aalmok. Nouns and adjectives will now be inflected only in terms of number and case.

Gender's can still be represented by means of the addition of _un and _im as suffixes, but these suffixes will simply have the number/case ending place after them.

This will make me feel more comfortable about adding any new suffixes and will likely mean the development of many more words ending with the consonant /l/.

Changes to the above list will be made as possible.
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 22, 2012 7:30 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

A gender is a concordial noun class.

Each noun is in a particular class, and which one it's in is inherent in the word. (That is, nouns usually don't inflect for gender).

Other words (maybe adjectives, maybe articles, maybe numerals, maybe demonstratives, usually pronouns, sometimes possessives, sometimes verbs, sometimes adpositions) have to agree (concord) with the noun's class.

That's what "concordial noun-class" means.

Some linguisticians call any system of concordial noun-classes a gender-system.

Some linguisticians won't call a system of concordial noun-classes a gender-system unless there are five or fewer classes.

Some linguisticians won't call a system of concordial noun-classes a gender-system unless at least one of the classes is sex-based; either it contains all and only human males, or all and only human females, or all and only male living beings, or all and only female living beings.

To me, those considerations are not really important; what's important is (whether and) that there is a concordial noun-class system with at least two noun-classes, with each noun assigned to and staying in a certain class, and other words having to agree with that class.

_____________________________________________________________

If I were you I'd not inflect nouns for gender; rather, I would have some way of assigning a given noun to a given gender. There are more than one way to do that; the two commonest basic considerations are, "what does the noun mean?" and "how does the noun sound?".

If I remember correctly, and provided I understood correctly in the first place, there is a Bantu language in which each verb is prefixed with a kind of mini-clause.
The prefix consists of three parts; first, there is the gender and number of the subject; then, there is the aspect, modality/mode/mood, polarity, tense, and voice of the verb; then, there is the gender and number of the object.
As you may recall, in Bantu languages, the noun-class shows both the gender and the number; each singular noun-class has a matching plural noun-class in which groups of its members go. (Since sometimes two different singular noun-classes can pluralize into the same plural noun-class, there are in many of these languages more singular noun-classes than plural ones.)
Also, as you may recall, in many Bantu languages the first syllable (or first consonant, or first phoneme) of a noun is its noun-class. (There are others in which the noun-class is shown by the article; each noun has to be memorized together with its article.) So Bantu clauses frequently have a lot of alliteration "built in"; just as it's usually easy to rhyme one clause with another in languages with case-endings.
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PostPosted: Tue May 15, 2012 4:00 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I've actually totally done away with the inflected distinction between genders, so I'm not going against your advice. The two endings I mentioned don't affect the inflections of nouns. Their only purpose is to state the sex of a creature whenever it is truly necessary. I don't anticipate that they will have really any use in conversational language, but they might become important for more technical discussion.

On another note, I've made a slight pronunciation change. If the there is a syllable ending in a vowel, then a nasal, then a consonant, the vowel will be slightly nasalized and the nasal will be slightly approximated. I decided on this when I discovered it made it a lot easier for me to say those clusters and it also made fricatives more distinct from affricates when they end such a cluster. It certainly adds a bit of a unique flavor to the language as well, which I think is great.
My one question for this is: is there a way to show a slight nasalization using the IPA? I know how to show approximation.
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 11, 2012 1:22 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

The letter combinations /ea/, /eo/ and /eu/ are now pronounced as [], [] and [y] respectively. I decided this primarily because those are easier for me to say but it will likely also have the effect of making me more willing to use those letter combinations in Aalmokal vocabulary. It could also greatly expand the potential word shapes since seperating the two vowels onto individual vowel carriers will cause them to be pronounced as they would be in Spanish. For example, by this rule /eurow/ will now be pronounced as [yɾɔ] instead of [ɛuɾɔ].
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